MANTED®

Guidelines
to fitting bodies



TRUCKNOLOGY® GENERATION (TGS / TGX)
Edition 2014 V1.0

PUBLISHER   MAN Truck & Bus AG (hereinafter referred to as MAN)   
Dept. STPST

Dachauer Str. 667   D - 80995 Munich

E-Mail: esc@man.eu   Fax: + 49 (0) 89 1580 4264

  I.  Applicability and legal agreements

  1.0  General

  2.0  Legal agreements

  2.1  Requirements

  2.2   Responsibility

  2.3  Registration of the vehicle

  3.0   Liability

  3.1  Liability for material defects

  3.2   Product liability

  3.3   Limitation of liability for accessories/spare parts

  3.4   Operational and road safety

  3.5   Instructions from body-building and conversion companies

  4.0   Quality assurance

  5.0   Approvals

  5.1   Body approval

  5.2   Manufacturer’s confirmation

 

  II.   Product identification

  1.0   General

  2.0  Terms

  2.1  Model range

  2.2   Model number

  2.3   Tonnage class

  2.4   Power rating

  2.5   Type of suspension

  2.6   Wheel configuration

  2.7   Suffix

  2.8   Cabs

  3.0   Door designation

  4.0   Variant descriptor

  5.0   Base vehicle number

  6.0   Vehicle identification number and vehicle production number

 

  III.  Chassis

  1.0    General

  1.1   Obtaining technical vehicle data

  1.2   Standards, guidelines, regulations, tolerances

  1.3   Quality of execution

  1.3.1   Corrosion protection

  1.3.2   Welding work on the vehicle

  1.3.3   Drill holes, riveted and bolted connections

  2.0   Overall vehicle

  2.1    General

  2.2   Terms, dimensions and weights

  2.2.1   Theoretical wheelbase

  2.2.2   Theoretical and permitted overhang lengths

  2.2.3   Permissible axle load

  2.2.4   Permissible gross weight

  2.2.5   Permissible gross train weight

  2.2.6   Axle overload

  2.2.7   Wheel-load difference

  2.2.8  Minimum front-axle load

  2.2.9   Calculating the axle load and weighing procedure

  2.2.10   Rolling circumference and difference in rolling circumference

  2.3   Modifications to the overall vehicle

  2.3.1   Modifications to the wheelbase

  2.3.2   Modifying the frame overhang

  2.3.3  Modifying the wheel configuration

  2.3.4  Changing the tyre type

  2.3.5   Changing the vehicle type and interchangeable operation as semitrailer
              tractor/truck

  2.3.6   Retrofitting additional units, attachments and accessories

  2.4   Homologated vehicle components / vehicle components relevant to safety

  3.0   Cab

  3.1   General

  3.2  Cabs

  3.3   Spoilers, roof extensions, roofwalk

  3.4   Roof sleeper cabs

  3.5   Fastening the hazardous goods plate to the front flap

  4.0   Chassis frame

  4.1    General

  4.2   Frame materials

  4.3   Frame profiles

  5.0   Frame attachments

  5.1    General

  5.2   Front underride protection

  5.3   Side underride protection

  5.4   Rear underride protection

  5.5   Fuel tanks

  5.6   Coupling devices

  6.0   Engine and driveline

  6.1  General

  6.2   Engine variants

  6.3   Engine environment

  6.3.1   Modifications to the engine

  6.3.2   Modifications to the air-intake system

  6.3.3   Modifications to the engine cooling system

  6.3.4   Modifications to engine encapsulation, noise insulation

  6.3.5   Compressed-air supply

  6.3.5.1   Basic principles

  6.3.5.2   Routing lines

  6.3.5.3   Plug-in connectors

  6.3.5.4   Connecting auxiliary consumers

  6.3.5.5   Loss of compressed-air pressure

  6.4   Exhaust system

  6.4.1   Modifications to the exhaust routing

  6.4.2   AdBlue system

  6.4.2.1   Basic principles and structure of the AdBlue system

  6.4.2.2   AdBlue line set

  6.4.2.3   AdBlue tank

  6.4.2.4   AdBlue supply module

  6.4.2.5    AdBlue cable harness

  6.4.2.6  Parts list

  6.5   Gearbox and propshafts

  6.5.1   Basic principles

  6.5.2   Propshaft configurations

  6.5.3   Forces in the propshaft system

  6.5.4   Modifying the propshaft configuration

  6.5.5   Fitting other manual or automatic gearboxes and transfer cases

  6.6   PTOs

  6.7   Brake system

  6.7.1   Basic principles

  6.7.2   Installing and fastening brake lines

  6.7.3   ALB, EBS brake system

  6.7.4   Retrofitting continuous brakes

  6.8   MAN HydroDrive

 

  7.0   Running gear

  7.1    General

  7.2   Modifications to the running gear

  8.0   Electrical/electronic system (on-board network)

  8.1    General

  8.1.1   Electromagnetic compatibility

  8.1.2   Radio equipment and aerials

  8.1.3   Diagnostics concept and parameterisation using MAN-cats

  8.2   Cables

  8.2.1   Routing cables

  8.2.2   Ground cable

  8.2.3   Wiring harnesses for wheelbase extensions

  8.2.4   Cable harnesses for rear position lamps, additional rear position lamps,
               trailer sockets, side marker lamps and supplementary ABS sockets

  8.2.5   Supplementary wiring diagrams and cable-harness drawings

  8.3   Interfaces on the vehicle, preparations for the body

  8.3.1   Tapping into the engine-on (D+) signal

  8.3.2   Electrical interface for liftgate

  8.3.3   Engine-Start-stop system

  8.3.4   Tapping into the speed signal

  8.3.5   Tapping into the reverse gear signal

  8.3.6   Interfaces between intermediate speed control and VMC and customer
              specific control module (ISC interfaces)

  8.4   Additional consumers

  8.5   Batteries

  8.5.1   Handling and maintaining batteries

  8.5.2   Handling and maintaining batteries with PAG technology

  8.6   Lighting installations

  8.7   Display and instrumentation concept

  8.8   Safety and assistance systems

  8.8.1   ESP yaw-rate sensor

  8.8.2   Emergency Brake Assist

 

  IV.   Body

  1.0   General requirements

  1.1   Requirements

  1.2   Accessibility and freedom of movement

  1.3   Handling characteristics and driving resistances

  1.4   Vibration

  1.5   Special feature of vehicles with lifting axles

  1.6   Vehicles with outriggers

  1.6.1   Outrigger operation with the wheels in contact with the ground

  1.6.2   Outrigger operation with the wheels not in contact with the ground

  1.7   Tolerances

  1.8   Assembly

  1.9   Corrosion protection of bodywork

  1.10   Standards, directives and regulations

  1.10.1   Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC)

  1.10.2   Securing of cargo

  1.10.3   Contour markings

   2.0   Body and auxiliary-frame design

   2.1   General requirements

   2.2   Body with auxiliary frame

   2.3   Body without auxiliary frame

   2.4   Attaching auxiliary frames and bodies

   2.5   Threaded connections and riveted joints

   2.6   Flexible connection

   2.7   Rigid connection

   3.0   Bodies

   3.1   Semitrailer tractors

   3.1.1   Chassis and equipment

   3.1.2   Requirements for bodies

   3.2   Platform and box bodies

   3.3   Swap body fittings

   3.3.1   Chassis and equipment

   3.3.2   Requirements to be met by the body

   3.4   Liftgates

   3.5   Tank and container bodies

   3.5.1   Chassis and equipment

   3.5.2   Requirements to be met by the body

   3.6   Refuse-collector body

   3.6.1   Chassis and equipment

   3.6.2   Requirements to be met by the body

   3.7   Tippers

   3.7.1   Chassis and equipment

   3.7.2   Requirements to be met by the body

   3.8   Set-down and roll-off skip loaders

   3.9   Loading crane

   3.9.1   Chassis and equipment

   3.9.2   Requirements to be met by the body

   3.9.3   Requirements to be met by auxiliary frames for loading cranes

   3.10   Transport mixers

   3.10.1   Chassis and equipment

   3.10.2   Requirements to be met by the body

   3.11    Cable winch

   3.12   Single-pivot body

   3.13   Vehicle transporter

   3.13.1   Chassis and equipment

   3.13.2   Requirements to be met by the body

 

  V.   Calculations

  1.0    General

  1.1   Speed

  1.2   Efficiency

  1.3   Tractive force

  1.4   Gradeability

  1.4.1  Distance travelled on uphill or downhill gradients

  1.4.2   Angle of uphill or downhill gradient

  1.4.3   Calculating the gradeability

  1.5   Torque

  1.6   Power output

  1.7   Rotational speeds for power take-offs on the transfer case

  1.8   Driving resistances

  1.9   Turning circle

  1.10   Axle-load calculation

  1.10.1  Performing an axle-load calculation

  1.10.2  Calculation of weight with trailing axle lifted

  1.11    Calculation of weight with trailing axle lifted

  1.12   Coupling devices

  1.12.1  Trailer coupling for steerable drawbar trailer (D value)

  1.12.2   Trailer coupling for rigid drawbar trailer/

                center-axle trailer (DCvalue, V value)

  1.12.3  Trailer coupling for semi-trailer (D value)

  1.13   Theoretical wheelbase and permissible overhang length


If not otherwise stated: all dimensions in mm, all weights and loads in kg


 Applicability and legal agreements

 

 

1.0    General

 

The statements in these MAN guidelines to fitting bodies are binding. Exceptions may only be approved by MAN following a written request and provided such exceptions are technically feasible (for address see “Publisher”).

 

 

2.0    Legal agreements

 

 

2.1    Requirements

 

In addition to these guidelines to fitting bodies the executing company must observe all of the following that apply to the operation and bodywork of the vehicle:


•    Legislation, rules and regulations
•    Accident-prevention regulations
•    Operating instructions


observed.


Standards are technical standards and thus contain minimum requirements. Failure to observe such minimum requirements is a negligent act. Standards are binding if they are part of rules and regulations.


Information received from MAN in answer to telephone enquiries is non-binding unless confirmed in writing.
Enquiries must be directed to the MAN department responsible.


Information is based on conditions of use such as are typical in Europe. Dimensions, weights and other basic values deviating therefrom must consequently be taken into account for the engineering design and attachment of bodywork and the design of the auxiliary frame. The executing company must ensure that the entire vehicle is able to sustain the conditions of use to be expected.


Various manufacturers have worked out specifications for certain units, e.g. loading cranes, liftgates, cable winches and so on. These are also to be observed if they contain requirements extra to the MAN guidelines to fitting bodies.


Mentions of:


•    Legal regulations
•    Accident-prevention regulations
•    Regulations issued by professional associations
•    Standard operating procedures
•    Other guidelines and sources


are by no means complete and are only for purposes of information. They are no replacement for due diligence on the part of the particular company.

 

2.2    Responsibility

 

Responsibility for professional

 

•    Engineering Design
•    Production
•    fitting of bodywork,
•    modifications to chassis

 

is always, and in full, that of the company producing or assembling the bodywork or carrying out the modification (manufacturer’s liability). This also applies when MAN has expressly granted approval of the bodywork or modification. Written approval of bodywork or modifications by MAN does not release the bodywork
manufacturer from their responsibility for the product.

 

Should the executing company detect an error in the planning stage or in the intentions of the

 

•    customers
•    user
•    its own personnel
•    vehicle manufacturer

 

they will draw the attention of the particular party to it.

 

The company is responsible for ensuring that the

 

•    Operational safety
•    Road safety
•    serviceability,
•    Driving characteristics

 

of the vehicle are not negatively affected in any way.

 

In terms of road safety the company must construe and base:

 

•    Engineering Design
•    production of bodywork,
•    fitting of bodywork,
•    modifications to chassis
•    instructions,
•    Operating instructions

 

by the latest state of the art and recognized rules of the discipline. More difficult operating conditions are in addition to be taken into consideration.

 

 

2.3    Registration of the vehicle

 

National laws and technical regulations with respect to the registration of modified vehicles are to be complied with. Modification work carried out in on the chassis must be submitted to a Technical Service for assessment. The executing company remains responsible even subsequent to the registration of the vehicle in the event of the competent authorities having issued the vehicle registration in ignorance of the operational safety of the product.

 

EU multi-stage type-approval procedure as per Annex XVII 2007/46/EC

 

Process

Within the framework of the multi-stage process pursuant to Annex XVII of Directive 2007/46/EC, each manufacturer shall bear independent responsibility for approval and conformity of production of all systems, components or independent technical units that it manufactures or adds in an earlier stage of manufacturing.

 

The body manufacturer is the manufacturer of the second or additional production stage pursuant to 2007/46/EC.

 

Responsibilities

As a basic principle, the body builder is responsible for:

 

•    modifications it carried out on the base vehicle.
•    objects granted approval at an earlier stage if, due to modifications to the base vehicle, the approvals granted are no longer applicable to this vehicle.
•    ensuring that the modification carried out complies with the respective national/international statutory regulations, in particular those of the destination country.
•    submitting the modifications it carried out to a technical service for assessment.
•    documenting compliance with statutory regulations in appropriate form (test report and/or permit or documents meeting the legal requirements of

    the destination country).

 

As a basic principle, MAN as manufacturer of the base vehicle is responsible for:

 

•    providing the body builder with the homologation documentation (EU/EEC approvals) available for the scope of delivery of the base vehicles in electronic

    form on request.

 

Identification of the vehicles

The respective vehicle shall receive a vehicle identification number (“VIN”), which identifies MAN as manufacturer of the incomplete base vehicle.

As a basic principle, the requirements laid down in Annex XVII to 2007/46/EU and the published associated procedural instructions apply.

 

Conformity of production (COP)

As a basic principle, the requirements laid down in individual EU Directives and Annex X to 2007/46/EU as well as the requirements laid down in Annex 2 to the EEC Agreement of 1958 apply.

 

Provision of documentation for registration/following stage

In accordance with Annex XVII to 2007/46/EU, MAN as manufacturer of the base vehicle provides the body builder or builders the available EU/EEC system approvals and the Certificate of Conformity (CoC)1) for the base vehicle in electronic form.

 

1)   Only in cases where the vehicle is EU-compliant and a Certificate of Conformity (CoC) has been printed by the plant.

 

Case I: Registration in Germany

 

In the case of MAN acting as general contractor (“single-invoice transaction”) the body builder/s as later-stage manufacturer/s undertake/s to provide the following documentation in electronic form:

 

          a)    The individual supplier conditions provide for an acceptance/approval and registration process by the vehicle manufacturer (MAN).

                 1. In the case of an existing and valid whole vehicle type-approval in accordance with 2007/46/EC for the manufacturing stages, a CoC. On request,                       existing EC/EEC system approvals or technical reports must be submitted.

                 2. Alternatively to 1, the test reports and approval documentation required for national individual approval procedures in accordance with Section 13

                    of the EC vehicle approval Directive.

 

                 The latest time for submitting the above stated documentation in printable form is the day the completed vehicle is returned to the contractually agreed

                 place of delivery.

               

                 The documentation shall be sent to the following e-mail address documents@de.man-mn.com.

 

                 In cases where MAN receives a CoC from the bodybuilder, then original certificates may only

                 be generated by MAN on behalf of the bodybuilder.

 

          b)    he acceptance/approval and registration process is to be carried out by the contract partner or by the manufacturer of the final completion stage

                  of the vehicle.

 

                 1. None.The registration process is the responsibility of the contract partner or the manufacturer of the final completion stage of the vehicle.

 

In all other cases the acceptance/approval and registration process is to be carried out by the manufacturer of the final completion stage of the vehicle or by the corresponding contract partner.

 

Case II:    Registration outside Germany but inside the area of application of Directive 2007/46/EC

 

If MAN serves as general contractor then the bodybuilder is under an obligation, as the final stage manufacturer, to provide in electronic form, all the necessary approval/registration documentation for all modifications made during the subsequent manufacturing stages of the respective responsible sales organisation or importer which exceed the scope of the basic vehicle.

 

Irrespective of any general contractor status of the importers, the acceptance/approval and registration process is to be carried out by the manufacturer of the final completion stage of the vehicle or by the corresponding contract partner.

 

The importer in the respective country or the corresponding contract partner has the authority and responsibility for the registration process.

 

MAN does not supply any national data for registration purposes exceeding that for incomplete vehicles set forth in Annex IX to Directive 2007/46/EG in its current form and as amended from time to time. This also applies in particular to national model codes and encrypted basic technical data.

 

MAN as a manufacturer reserves the right – following corresponding feasibility studies and economic implementation – and after reaching corresponding specifically applicable agreements with national sales organisations and importers, to provide data for national registration which exceeds the scope of that set forth above (e.g. vehicle’s manufacturing plates etc.). Enquiries in this regard shall be sent to the following e-mail address documents@de.man-mn.com.

 

 

Non-disclosure agreement

The bodybuilder may not forward the approval documentation provided by MAN to any third parties without obtaining prior, express permission from MAN.

 

The forwarding of documentation that is directly associated with the registration of the vehicle in question to persons of the institutions listed below is excepted:

 

•    MAN Sales partners

•    Technical vehicle inspection centers or testing organisations

•    Approval authorities

•    Registration authorities or licensing centers acting for the government

 

Note on type approval / homologation for TiB, CiB, BiB, CKD, SKD and PKD vehicles

 

Where:

 

•    TiB stands for Truck in the Box

•    CiB stands for Chassis in the Box

•    BiB stands for Bus in the Box

•    CKD stands for Complete Knocked Down

•    SKD stands for Semi Knocked Down

•    PKD stands for Partly Knocked Down

 

For these versions MAN is not considered to be the manufacturer within the meaning of Directive 2007/46/EC – therefore, the responsibility for the homologation and registration process lies with the manufacturer of these vehicles.

 

In principle, the substance of the contracts respectively concluded with MAN shall apply.

 

However, this does not exclude MAN as a manufacturer reserving the right – following corresponding feasibility studies and economic implementation – and after reaching corresponding specifically applicable agreements with national sales organisations and importers, to provide data for national registration which exceeds the scope of that set forth above (e.g. vehicle’s manufacturing plates etc.). Enquiries in this regard shall be sent to MAN’s Homologation Department.

 

 

 

3.0    Liability

 

 

3.1    Liability for material defects

 

Claims on liability for defects only exist within the contract of sale between the purchaser and the seller. The liability for defects consequently rests with the seller of the article of sale. Claims may not be made of MAN if the reported defect results from the following:

 

•    Non-adherence to these body guidelines

•    Selection of a chassis unsuitable for the intended purpose of the vehicle

•    Damage to the chassis caused by:

   -   the body,

   -   the nature/execution of body installation,

   -   modification to the chassis,

   -   incorrect operation.

 

 

3.2    Product liability

 

Defects in workmanship detected by MAN are to be corrected. In as much as this is legally admissible, MAN will bear no liability, in particular for consequential damages.

 

Product liability regulates:

 

•    The liability of the manufacturer for their product or component of a product.

•    The claim to compensation from the manufacturer of an integrated component of a product made by the manufacturer claimed upon if the occurring damage

     results from a defect of this component of a product.

 

The company that executes the bodywork or modification to the chassis shall indemnify MAN from any claims for liability made by its customers or other third parties, in as much as any damage results from the following:

 

•    The company having failed to comply with the guidelines to fitting bodies valid at the time.

•    The bodywork or chassis modification has caused damage through faulty

   -    Engineering Design

   -    Manufacture

   -    Assembly

   -    instructions.

•    The set principles were not complied with in any other way.

 

 

3.3    Limitation of liability for accessories/spare parts

 

Accessories and spare parts not manufactured by MAN or approved for use in its products can impair the
operational and road safety of the vehicle and lead to dangerous situations. MAN Truck & Bus AG (or the seller)
accepts no liability for claims of any kind resulting from a combination of the vehicle together with an accessory that was made by another manufacturer. Excepted from the aforementioned are cases in which MAN Truck & Bus AG (or the seller) itself offers the accessory for sale or fits it to the vehicle (or the subject of the contract).

 

 

3.4    Operational and road safety

 

n order to ensure operational and road safety or to maintain the validity of any claims under the guarantee, the bodybuilder must observe the instructions given in these guidelines to fitting bodies exactly. MAN shall not be liable for non-compliance.

 

Before commencing work on the body, making modifications or starting installation work, the bodybuilder must also have knowledge of the sections of the operator‘s manual that relate to the work he is completing. It will otherwise be impossible to recognise risks and other persons may be endangered.

 

MAN cannot be liable for reliability, safety and suitability under the following circumstances.

 

•    Bodies are not constructed and fitted in accordance with these guidelines to fitting bodies

•    MAN Genuine Parts or approved parts and modifications are replaced with other parts

•    Unauthorised modifications are made to the vehicle

 

Approvals by third parties, for example Technical Inspection Agencies or approvals from public authorities, shall not be considered sufficient for precluding safety risks.

 

Companies handling and working on the vehicle are liable for any damages that result from deficient functional and operational safety or inadequate operating manuals. MAN consequently requires of the bodybuilder or modifier:

 

•    maximum state-of-the-art safety standards,

•    comprehensible and adequately detailed operating instructions,

•    easily visible, permanently affixed plates at points posing a risk to operators and/or third persons,

•    adherence to necessary protective measures (e.g. against fire and explosion risks),

•    full details relating to toxicology,

•    full details relating to ecology.

 

Safety has priority! Make use of all technical possibilities to avoid and eliminate insecure operation.

 

This applies equally to:

 

•    Active safety = prevention of accidents. This includes:

   -    driving safety as a result of the overall concept of the vehicle with its bodywork

   -    conditional safety produced by minimal physical stress on occupants through vibration, noise, climate, etc.

   -    assured perception, especially correct design of lighting fittings, warning devices, sufficient direct and indirect visibility

   -    operational safety, including optimum operability of all devices and fittings, and those of the bodywork

•    Passive safety = avoidance and containment of accident consequences. This includes:

   -    outer safety, e.g. design of the exterior of the vehicle/bodywork in terms of deformation, fitting of protective devices

   -    inner safety, including protection of the occupants of vehicles, but also cabs installed by bodywork producers

 

Climatic and environmental conditions affect:

 

•    Operational safety

•    readiness for use,

•    in-service performance,

•    Service life

•    cost-effectiveness,

 

Climatic and environmental influences are, for example:

 

•    effects of temperature

•    Humidity

•    aggressive substances,

•    sand and dust,

•    radiation.

 

Ensure sufficient clearance of all parts involved in movement, including all cables and leads. The operating manuals for MAN vehicles provide information on the maintenance points on the vehicle. Regardless of the kind of bodywork, ensure good access to these maintenance points in all cases. Maintenance must be possible unhindered by having to remove any parts. Ensure adequate ventilation and/or cooling of sub-assemblies.

 

 

3.5    Instructions from body-building and conversion companies

 

In the event of a body atng added or modifications to the vehicle atng carried out by a conversion company, the operator of the vehicle is also entitled to receive the operating instructions. All the benefits of a product are of no use if the customer is unable to:

 

•    handle it safely and true to its purpose,

•    use it rationally and effortlessly,

•    correctly service and maintain it,

•    work with it expertly in all its functions.

 

Every bodybuilder and modifier shall consequently ensure that their technical manuals exhibit:

 

•    Comprehensibility

•    Complete

•    Accuracy

•    Traceability

•    Product-specific notes on safety

 

A poor or incomplete operating manual means considerable risk factors for the user. Possible consequences are:

 

•    reduced value because product advantages go unrecognized;

•    complaints, irritation and annoyance;

•    failures and damage that are usually attributed to the chassis,

•    unexpected and unnecessary extra costs through repairs and loss of time;

•    a negative image and thus less inclination to purchase from the same source again.

 

Operating personnel is to be instructed in operation and maintenance for the particular vehicle body or modification. Instruction must also include possible effects on the static and dynamic performance of the vehicle.

 

 

4.0    Quality assurance

 

To satisfy the high quality demands of our customers and comply with international product/producer liability, continuous quality inspection is also needed to conduct retrofits and in the production/fitting of bodywork. This calls for a properly functioning quality-assurance system.

 

The bodybuilder is advised to set up and provide evidence of a quality management system complying with general requirements and accepted rules (e.g. EN ISO 9000 ff or VDA Vol. 8).
If MAN is the contracting body for the bodywork or modification, it will demand evidence of qualification. MAN Truck & Bus AG reserves the right to conduct its own VDA Vol. 8 system audit of a supplier or appropriate examinations of processes. VDA Vol. 8 is harmonised with the bodywork manufacturer associations ZKF (federal association of bodywork and vehicle engineering), BVM (federal association of the metalworking trade) as well as with the ZDH (federal association of skilled crafts).

 

Publications:

VDA Vol. 8: Aids to quality assurance for trailer, body and container manufacturers can be obtained from the German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA).

 

 

 

5.0    Approvals

 

The “Approvals” section contains information on the approval of bodies and manufacturer’s confirmation.
The prerequisites, basic principles to be complied with when submitting applications and the options for obtaining applications are described.

 

 

5.1    Body approval

 

General information

Body approval from MAN is not required if the bodies or modifications are carried out in accordance with these guidelines to fitting bodies.

 

If MAN approves a body, this approval applies, in the case of bodies,

 

•    to their basic compatibility with the respective chassis,

•    to interfaces with the body (e.g. dimensioning and fastening the auxiliary frame).

 

The endorsement of approval entered by MAN in the submitted technical documents does not cover inspection of the:

 

•    Function

•    Engineering Design

•    equipment of the body or the modification.

 

The endorsement of approval only concerns measures or parts to be seen or taken from the submitted technical documents.

MAN reserves the right to refuse issue of an approval of bodywork, even if comparable approval was issued at an earlier date. Technical advances rule out the possibility of cases atng fully identical. MAN furthermore reserves the right to alter these guidelines at any time, or to issue instructions differing from those contained herein in the case of single chassis.

 

Should a number of identical chassis have identical bodywork, MAN may issue a collective approval for the sake of simplicity.

 

For an approval process to proceed swiftly, the following are required:

 

Template for inspection documentation

Documents should only be sent to MAN if bodies deviate from these guidelines to fitting bodies. If this is the case, technical documents enabling inspection must be sent to MAN (for address see “Publisher” above) before work on the vehicle begins.

 

A rapid processing procedure requires:

 

•    documents preferably submitted in the usual digital formats (e.g. PDF, DWG, DXF, STEP),

•    complete technical data and documents,

•    as few documents as possible.

 

The following details will be contained:

 

•    Vehicle model (for model numbers see Chapter II, Section 2.2 “Model numbers”) with

   -    Cab version

   -    Wheelbase

   -    Frame overhang

•    Vehicle identification number or vehicle production number (if already existing, see Chapter II, Section 6.0, “Vehicle identification numbers and vehicle

     production numbers)

•    Appropriate marking of departures from these guidelines in all documents!

•    Loads and their points of application

   -    Forces from bodywork

•    Axle load calculation

•    Special conditions of use:

•    Subframe

   -    Subframe

   -    Dimensions

   -    Type of profile

   -    Cross member arrangement in auxiliary frame

   -    Particularities of auxiliary frame design

   -    Changes to cross-sections

   -    Changes to cross-sections

   -    Kick-up, etc.

•    Joining means:

   -    Positioning (with reference to chassis)

   -    Type

   -    Size

   -    Quantity

 

The following are not sufficient for inspection and approval:

 

•    Parts lists

•    Literature

•    Photos

•    Other non-binding information

 

Drawings are only of value under the number assigned them.

 

 

5.2    Manufacturer’s confirmation

 

General information

When vehicles are modified, a manufacturer’s confirmation may become necessary. If a special application is submitted, MAN may issue a certificate of exemption from existing technical specifications. Manufacturer’s confirmations can only be issued insofar as they are consistent with functional, operational and road safety.

 

When MAN approves a chassis modification, the approval concerns only the basic permissibility of the engineering design for the affected chassis.

 

In general, manufacturer’s confirmations can be divided into the following categories:

 

•    Vehicle confirmations

   -    For example, for

      ·    Modification of wheelbase

      ·    Changing to different tyres

      ·    Interchangeable operation or conversion of trucks / semitrailer tractors

      ·    Axle loads and gross weight

      ·    Trailer load and gross train weight

•    Factory, ALB and engine plates

•    Documents accompanying the vehicle

   -    For example:

      ·    COP document

      ·   Certificate “Low-noise vehicle”

•    Registration papers

   -    For example:

      ·    Confirmation of data

 

A detailed overview of the available manufacturer’s confirmations can be found at www.manted.de → “Confirmations SMTSC”.

 

Applications for manufacturer’s confirmations

Applications for manufacturer’s confirmations from outside the Federal Republic of Germany can only be made through the respective central importing company. The applicant is the recipient of the invoice and the recipient of the confirmation and must be one and the same person.

 

Enquiries concerning for manufacturer’s approvals can be submitted in various ways:

 

•    Enquiry by fax or e-mail

   -    The forms (templates) can be obtained from www.manted.de → “Confirmations SMTSC”

   -    Return of filled-in application by fax or e-mail to the contact address stated on the application.

   -    Further information can be found in the Help document on the “Confirmations SMTSC” page.

•    Enquiry via MANTEDS on-line application

   -    This can be found at www.manted.de → MANTED online applications (additional registration is

         required) → Record a new MANTED online application → Selection of desired application.

   -    Please fill in all the necessary fields in the online application.

   -    Further information can be found in the Help document on the online applications area.

 

Note

 

It is assumed that the modification measures(s) will only be carried out subsequent to receipt of the applicable manufacturer’s approval(s), insofar as required.

 

Certificates of exemption issued by MAN are not binding on the authorities responsible.
MAN has no influence of the issuing of certificates of exemptions by the respective authorities.
As a basic principle, every certificate of exemption must be checked and accepted by an officially approved inspector and entered in the vehicle’s papers by the responsible vehicle registration authority.If the measure in question is not within the scope of national regulation and provisions, a certificate of exemption must be obtained from the responsible authorities beforehand.

 

Adherence to these guidelines does not release users from their responsibility for technically correct execution of the modification.

 

MAN reserves the right to refuse issue of an approval of the modification, even if comparable approval was issued at an earlier date. Technical advances rule out the possibility of cases atng fully identical. MAN furthermore reserves the right to alter these guidelines at any time, or to issue instructions differing from those contained herein in the case of single chassis.

 

 

 

II.   Product identification

 

 

1.0    General

 

For purposes of internal and external communication, various vehicle designations have been introduced according to certain classification criteria and adapted to suit requirements.

 

The most important designations are:

 

•    Variant designation

•    Door identification

•    Base vehicle and model number

•    Vehicle identification and vehicle production number

 

In addition, general information on MAN’s cab variants can also be found in this chapter.

 

 

2.0    Terms

 

Definitions of the terms used to describe MAN vehicles.

 

 

2.1 Model range

 

MAN’s “Trucknology Generation” is divided into four model ranges. An overview can be found in the following table.

 

Table 01-II:    The “Trucknology Generation” model ranges

 

Series

Explanation

Tonnage [t]**

TGL

Trucknology Generation L - Light range

7 - 12

TGM

Trucknology Generation M - Medium range

12 - 26

TGS

Trucknology Generation S - Heavy range with narrow cabs*

18 - 41

TGX

Trucknology Generation X - Heavy range with wide cabs*

18 - 41

 

* For further information on the MAN range of cabs, see Chapter II, Section 2.8 “Cabs” and Chapter III, Section 3.2 “Cab variants”

** Standard tonnage / permissible gross weight

 

 

2.2    Model number

 

A vehicle can only be uniquely identified on the basis of its model number, also known as model code number.
The model number comprises three characters and unambiguously classifies different vehicle families and variants. It identifies the assignment to a model range, the tonnage and the type of suspension.

 

As a rule, it consists of a letter and two digits and together with the base vehicle number, it is also an element of the vehicle identification number and the vehicle production number.

 

The tables below list the existing model code numbers for the TGL, TGM, TGS und TGX model ranges.

 

The designation shown in the table contains the standard wheel configuration. The given suspension type is the basic suspension of the vehicle’s front- and rear-axle assemblies.

 

Table 02-II:    Model numbers and vehicle designations in the TGS model range

 

Type number

Tonnage [t]

Designation

Suspension

Note

03S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x2 BB

Leaf-Leaf

06S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x2 BL

Leaf-Air

08S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x2 BLS-TS

Leaf-Air

10S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x2 LL

Air-Air

13S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x2 LLS-U

Air-Air

15S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x2 LL-U

Air-Air

18S

26

TGS 26.xxx 6x2-2 BL

Leaf-Air

21S

26

TGS 26.xxx 6x2-2 LL

Air-Air

22S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x4H BL

Leaf-Air

24S

24 / 26

TGS 24.xxx 6x2/2 BL
TGS 26.xxx 6x2/4 BL

Leaf-Air

26S

26 / 33

TGS 26.xxx 6x4 BB
TGS 33.xxx 6x4 BB

Leaf-Leaf

30S

26 / 33

TGS 26.xxx 6x4 BL
TGS 33.xxx 6x4 BL

Leaf-Air

35S

26

TGS 26.xxx 6x4H-2 BL

Leaf-Air

37S

35

TGS 35.xxx 8x4 BB

Leaf-Leaf

39S

37 / 41

TGS 37.xxx 8x4 BB
TGS 41.xxx 8x4 BB

Leaf-Leaf

41S

35

TGS 35.xxx 8x4 BL

Leaf-Air

42S

26

TGS 26.xxx 6x4H/2 BLS

Leaf-Air

45S

24

TGS 24.xxx 6x2-2 LL-U

Air-Air

49S

32

TGS 32.xxx 8x4 BB

Leaf-Leaf

52S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x4 BB

Leaf-Leaf

56S

26 / 33

TGS 26.xxx 6x6 BB
TGS 33.xxx 6x6 BB

Leaf-Leaf

59S

35

TGS 35.xxx 8x6H BL

Leaf-Air

70S

26

TGS 26.xxx 6x6H BL

Leaf-Air

71S

28

TGS 28.xxx 6x4H-4 BL

Leaf-Air

73S

35

TGS 35.xxx 8x4H-6 BL

Leaf-Air

74S

28

TGS 28.xxx 6x2-4 BL

Leaf-Air

80S

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x4 BL

Leaf-Air

82S

26 / 33

TGS 26.xxx 6x6 BL
TGS 33.xxx 6x6 BL

Leaf-Air

84S

28

TGS 28.xxx 6x4-4 BL

Leaf-Air

89S

28

TGS 28.xxx 6x2-2 BL

Leaf-Air

90S

35

TGS 35.xxx 8x2-4 BL

Leaf-Air

92S

35

TGS 35.xxx 8x4-4 BL

Leaf-Air

93S

35 / 41

TGS 35.xxx 8x6 BB
TGS 41.xxx 8x6 BB

Leaf-Leaf

96S

35 / 41

TGS 35.xxx 8x8 BB
TGS 35.xxx 8x8 BB

Leaf-Leaf

 

Table 03-II:    Model numbers and vehicle designations in the TGS-WW model range

 

Type number

Tonnage [t]

Designation

Suspension

Note

03W

19 / 21

TGS 19.xxx 4x2 BBS-WW
TGS 21.xxx 4x2 BBS-WW

Leaf-Leaf

06W

19 / 21

TGS 19.xxx 4x2 BLS-WW
TGS 21.xxx 4x2 BLS-WW

Leaf-Air

18W

26

TGS 26.xxx 6x2-2 BL-WW

Leaf-Air

19W

28

TGS 28.xxx 6x2-2 BL-WW

Leaf-Air

26W

33

TGS 33.xxx 6x4 BB-WW

Leaf-Leaf

30W

26 / 33

TGS 26.xxx 6x4 BLS-WW
TGS 33.xxx 6x4 BLS-WW

Leaf-Air

34W

40

TGS 40.xxx 6x4 BB-WW

Leaf-Leaf

39W

41

TGS 41.xxx 8x4 BB-WW

Leaf-Leaf

52W

18

TGS 18.xxx 4x4 BB-WW

Leaf-Leaf

56W

33

TGS 33.xxx 6x6 BB-WW

Leaf-Leaf

58W

40

TGS 40.xxx 6x6 BB-WW

Leaf-Leaf

60W

41

TGS 41.xxx 8x8 BB-WW

Leaf-Leaf

71W

19 / 21

TGS 19.xxx 4x2 BBS-WW-CKD
TGS 21.xxx 4x2 BBS-WW-CKD

Leaf-Leaf

72W

19 / 21

TGS 19.xxx 4x2 BLS-WW-CKD
TGS 21.xxx 4x2 BLS-WW-CKD

Leaf-Air

73W

28

TGS 28.xxx 6x2-2 BL-WW-CKD

Leaf-Air

76W

33

TGS 33.xxx 6x4 BB-WW-CKD

Leaf-Leaf

77W

40

TGS 40.xxx 6x4 BB-WW-CKD

Leaf-Leaf

78W

26

TGS 26.xxx 6x4 BL-WW-CKD

Leaf-Air

79W

41

TGS 41.xxx 8x4 BB-WW-CKD

Leaf-Leaf

 

Table 04-II:    Model numbers and vehicle designations in the TGX model range

 

Type number

Tonnage [t]

Designation

Suspension

Note

05X

18

TGX 18.xxx 4x2 BLS-EL

Leaf-Air

06X

18

TGX 18.xxx 4x2 BL

Leaf-Air

10X

18

TGX 18.xxx 4x2 LL

Air-Air

13X

18

TGX 18.xxx 4x2 LLS-U

Air-Air

15X

18

TGX 18.xxx 4x2 LL-U

Air-Air

18X

26

TGX 26.xxx 6x2-2 BLS

Leaf-Air

21X

26

TGX 26.xxx 6x2-2 LL

Air-Air

22X

18

TGX 18.xxx 4x4H BLS

Leaf-Air

24X

24 / 26

TGX 24.xxx 6x2/2 BLS
TGX 26.xxx 6x2/2 BLS
TGX 26.xxx 6x2/4 BLS

Leaf-Air

26X

26 / 33

TGX 26.xxx 6x4 BB
TGX 33.xxx 6x4 BB

Leaf-Leaf

27X

28

TGX 28.xxx 6X4 BB

Leaf-Leaf

28X

28 / 33

TGX 28.xxx 6x4 BBS-CKD
TGX 32.xxx 6x4 BBS-CKD

Leaf-Leaf

30X

26 / 33

TGX 26.xxx 6x4 BL
TGX 33.xxx 6x4 BL

Leaf-Air

42X

26

TGX 26.xxx 6x4H/4 BLS

Leaf-Air

45X

24

TGX 24.xxx 6x2-2 LL-U

Air-Air

78X

18

TGX 18.xxx 4x2 BLS

Leaf-Air

79X

33

TGX 33.xxx 6x4 BL

Leaf-Air

86X

41

TGX 41.xxx 8x4/4 BBS

Leaf-Air

Leading axle is air-sprung

87X

41

TGX 41.xxx 8x4/4 BLS

Leaf-Air

88X

27

TGX 27.xxx 6x2-2 BBS-CKD

Leaf-Leaf

89X

28

TGX 28.xxx 6x2-2 BL

Leaf-Air

92X

35

TGX 35.xxx 8x4-4 BL

Leaf-Air

94X

41

TGX 41.xxx 8x4/4 BBS

Leaf-Air

Leading axle is air-sprung

95X

41

TGX 41.xxx 8x4/4 BLS

Leaf-Air

 

 

2.3    Tonnage class

 

The tonnage class corresponds to the design specification as per model-number list (see Chapter II, Section 2.2.0 “Model number”). It is the permissible gross weight for this vehicle model and may not be exceeded. More information on permissible gross weight can be found in Chapter III, Section 2.2.4 “Permissible gross weight”.

 

 

2.4    Power rating

 

The stated power ratings generally round off the engine output power to the next ten hp. Engine technical data sheets are an exception. More detailed information, for example on the exhaust-gas status (Euro standard) is not contained.

 

 

2.5    Type of suspension

 

As standard there are three different combinations of suspension, depending on the type of operation for which the vehicle is employed. The first letter describes the front-axle assembly, the second describes the rear-axle assembly.

 

Table 05-II:    Types of suspension for TGL/TGM and TGS/TGX

 

Abbreviation

Explanation

BB

Leaf suspension on front axle, leaf suspension on rear axle(s)

BL

Leaf suspension on front axle, air suspension on rear axle(s)

LL

Air suspension on front and rear axle(s)

 

 

 

2.6    Wheel configuration

 

The wheel configuration identifies the number of wheels, driven wheels and steered wheels. The term “wheel configuration” is a common term but not standardised. It is “wheel locations” that are counted and not the individual wheels. Twin tyres are therefore regarded as one wheel.

 

Here are two examples to explain the term wheel configuration:

 

Example of a three-axle vehicle with leading axle (wheel configuration))

 

6x2/4

6                      Total number of wheel locations

 x

  2                   number of driven wheels

     /                 leading axle in front of driven rear axle

      4                number of steered wheels

 

Example of a three-axle vehicle with trailing axle (wheel configuration)

 

6x2-4

6                     Total number of wheel locations

  x

   2                   number of driven wheels

     -                 trailing axle behind driven rear axle

       4               number of steered wheels

 

The number of steered wheels is only stated if there are steered leading or trailing axles in addition to steered front wheels.

 

A leading axle runs in front of a driven rear-axle unit; a trailing axle runs behind the driven rear-axle unit. The wheel configuration identifies these axles by means of a slash “/” in the case of a leading axle and a hyphen “-” in the case of a trailing axle.

 

If a chassis is fitted with both a leading and a trailing axle, the number of steered wheels follows the hyphen “-”.
For a hydrostatic front axle MAN HydroDrive, an “H” is added to the wheel configuration, e.g. 6x4H = front axle with MAN HydroDrive, two rear axles, one of them driven..

 

The following wheel configurations are currently available ex works:

 

Table 06-II:    Wheel configurations for TGS/TGX

 

Wheel configuration

Description

4x2

Two-axle vehicle with one driven axle

4x4

Two axles with two driven axles "allwheel"

4x4H

Two-axle vehicle with two driven axles, front axle with MAN HydroDrive

6x2/2

Three-axle vehicle with non-steered leading axle

6x2/4

Three-axle vehicle with steered leading axle

6x2-2

Three-axle vehicle with non-steered trailing axle

6x2-4

Three-axle vehicle with steered trailing axle

6x4

Three-axle vehicle with two driven and non-steered rear axles

6x4-4

Three-axle vehicle, two axles (first and second) are driven, steered trailing axle

6x4H/2

Three-axle vehicle, with MAN HydroDrive on the front axle, a driven rear axle and non-steered leading axle

6x4H/4

Three-axle vehicle, with MAN HydroDrive on the front axle, a driven rear axle and steered leading axle

6x4H-2

Three-axle vehicle, with MAN HydroDrive on the front axle, a driven rear axle and non-steered trailing axle

6x4H-4

Three-axle vehicle, with MAN HydroDrive on the front axle, a driven rear axle and steered trailing axle

6x6

Three axles with allwheel drive

6x6H

Three-axle vehicle with all-wheel drive, front axle with MAN HydroDrive

8x2-4

Four-axle vehicle, one driven axle, two steered leading axles, a non-steered trailing axle or four axles with three rear axles, steered leading and trailing axles

8x2-6

Four-axle vehicle, one driven axle, two steered front axles, steered trailing axle

8x4

Four-axle vehicle with two steered front axles and two driven rear axles

8x4/4

Four-axle vehicle with one front axle, one steered leading axle and two driven rear axles

8x4-4

Four-axle vehicle with one leading axle, two driven rear axles and one steered trailing axle

8x4H-6

Four-axle vehicle with two steered front axles (second front axle with MAN Hydro Drive), one driven rear axle and one driven trailing axle

8x6

Four-axle vehicle "all-wheel" with two front axles (second front axle driven) and two driven rear axles

8x6H

Four-axle vehicle "all-wheel" with two front axles (second front axle with MAN HydroDrive) and two driven rear axles

8x8

Four axles allwheel with two front axles and two trailing axles, all driven

 

 

 

2.7    Suffix

 

The suffix differentiates trucks from semitrailer tractors or describes special product features.

 

Semitrailer tractors are designated with an ‘S’ suffix. Trucks have no special designation.

 

Example of a semitrailer tractor:

 

TGS 33.440 6x6 BBS

                                S = semitrailer

 

Identification of special product features is added separated from the front part of the suffix by a hyphen “-”.

 

Example of special product features:

 

TGM 13.250 4x4 BL-FW

                                 -FW = Fire engine chassis with all-wheel drive and low build height approved solely for fire fighting vehicle bodies

 

Table 07-II:    Overview of suffixes

 

Abbreviation

Explanation

Example

S

Semitrailer tractor

TGS 33.440 6x6 BBS

-CKD

Completely Knocked Down vehicle for assembly in an MAN plant in the recipient country

TGM 18.280 4x2 BB-CKD

-TIB

Truck In The Box for assembly in an MAN  plant in the recipient country

TGM 18.250 4x2 BB-TIB

-FW

Fire-engine chassis with all-wheel drive and low build height approved solely for fire fighting vehicle bodies

TGM 13.250 4x4 BL-FW

-FOC

Forward control chassis for omnibus superstructure

TGL 12.xxx 4x2 BL-FOC

-TS

Version optimised in weight for tank/silo

TGS 18.350 4x2 BLS-TS

-WW

Worldwide variant, can only be registered outside Europe

TGS 33.360 6x4BB-WW

-EL

Vehicles fitted with Efficient Line equipment variant

TGX 18.440 4x2 BLS-EL

-U

Vehicle with low build height ("Ultra")

TGX 18.400 4x2 LLS-U

 

 

 

2.8    Cabs

 

Because of the transport tasks and operational areas covered by MAN vehicles, there are different cab variants.
MAN has cabs assigned to the respective model ranges. The following list provides an overview.

 

More detailed technical information can be found in Chapter III, Section 3.2 “Cab variants”.

 

Fig. 01-II:    Cab variants

 

 

 

 

3.0    Door designation

 

MAN’S door designation provides readily accessible information on the vehicle model with its tonnage and power output.

 

The door designation consists of:

 

•    Series

•    Permissible gross weight

•    Power rating (separated from the permissible gross weight by a full stop “.”)

 

Table 08-II:    Examples of door designations

 

Series

Permissible gross weight [t]

Power rating [hp]

TGL

12

.220

TGM

18

.340

TGM

26

.290

TGS

24

.480

TGS

18

.360

TGX

26

.540

 

 

 

4.0    Variant descriptor

 

The variant descriptor consists of:

 

•    Series

•    Permissible gross weight

•    Power rating (separated from the permissible gross weight by a full stop “.”)

•    Wheel configuration

•    Suspension type

•    Suffix

 

The terms used are explained in Chapter II, Section 2.0 “Terms”.

 

Table 09-II:    Examples of variant descriptors

 

Series

Permissible gross weight [t]

Power rating [hp]

Wheel
configuration

Suspension type

Suffix

TGL

12

.220

4x2

BL

 

TGM

18

.340

4x2

BB

-FW

TGM

26

.290

6x4

BB

 

TGS

24

.480

6x2-2

LL

-U

TGS

18

.360

4x2

BL

S-TS

TGX

26

.540

6x2-2

LL

 

 

 

 

5.0    Base vehicle number

 

The eight-character base vehicle (“GFZ”) number was introduced in order to identify and better differentiate between MAN vehicles.

 

The MAN base vehicle number describes an MAN vehicle (base vehicle) with certain technical features and defined standard equipment.

 

Table 10-II:    Examples of base vehicle numbers

 

Digit

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Example

L

0

6

X

K

G

3

1

Example

L

2

1

S

G

F

3

8

Example

L

N

1

8

C

E

0

8

 

L = Truck

Typ number

Sequential designation

 

The model number is an important element of the base vehicle number and occupies places 2- 4 in the base vehicle number.

 

More information on model numbers can be found in Chapter II, Section 2.2 “Model number”.

 

 

6.0    Vehicle identification number and vehicle production number

 

The vehicle identification number and vehicle production number describe customer-specific vehicles with corresponding scopes of equipment and technical characteristics.

 

Vehicle identification number

The vehicle identification number (VIN) is a 17-character internationally standardised alphanumeric string that uniquely identifies a vehicle.

 

Table 11-II:    Example of a vehicle identification number

 

Digit

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Example

W

M

A

0

6

X

Z

Z

9

7

K

0

0

1

4

6

4

ISO 3779

World manufacturer’s code

(MAN, for example, is WMA)

Descriptive designation (places 4-6 are the model number)

Sequential designation

 

As a rule, vehicle identification numbers for MAN chassis of the Trucknology Generation begin with the letters “WMA”.

 

Exceptions are, amongst others, vehicles

 

•    from CKD plants (these have their own manufacturer’s codes)

•    of the Steyr brand (VAN)

•    of the ÖAF brand (VA0)

•    of the ERF brand (SAF).

 

The vehicle identification number contains the model number in places 4 – 6. (see Chapter II, Section 2.2 “Model number”).

 

Vehicle production number

 

The vehicle production number consists of seven characters and describes the vehicle’s technical equipment.
It contains the model number in places 1 - 3 followed by a four-character alphanumeric code.

 

Table 12-II:    Example of a vehicle production number

 

Digit

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Example

0

6

X

0

0

0

4

 

Typ number

Sequential designation

 

Table 13-II:    Example of vehicle designation, model number, identification number, base vehicle number and vehicle production number

 

Designation of vehicle

Model number

Vehicle identification number (VIN)

Base vehicle number

Vehicle production number

TGX 18.440 4x2 BLS

06X

WMA06XZZ97K001464

L06XKG31

06X0004

TGS 26.410 6x2-4 LL

21S

WMA21SZZ67M479579

L21SGF38

21S0002

TGM 18.330 4X2 BL

N18

WMAN18ZZ16Y155852

LN18CE08

N180008

 

More information on model numbers can be found in Chapter II, Section 2.2 “Model number”.

 

 

 

 

III.    Chassis

 

 

 

1.0    General

 

To create the product a customer expects, under certain circumstances additional components may need to be integrated, attached or modified. We recommend using MAN Genuine parts to the extent to which they are compatible with the engineering design.

 

 

1.1    Obtaining technical vehicle data

 

Technical vehicle data enables selection of the optimal base vehicle for the intended purpose of the vehicle.

 

Information on MAN vehicles and vehicle components such as

 

•    Cabs / bumpers
•    Exhaust
•    Frame side member
•    Final cross member
•    Gearboxes / power take-off systems

 

can be found at www.manted.de. Registration is required.

 

The following can be found at MANTED:

 

•    Dimensions
•    Weights
•    Position of center of gravity for payload and body (minimum and maximum body lengths)
•    Standard equipment
•    Drawings

 

Note:
The data published in MANTED refer to the series-production status of a vehicle. This may vary, depending on the technical scope of delivery. What is decisive is the actual status of the built and delivered vehicle.

 

National and international specifications take priority over technically admissible dimensions and weights if they restrict the technically admissible dimensions and weights.

 

 

1.2    Standards, guidelines, regulations, tolerances

 

Applicable standards and guidelines / directives are technical standards and must therefore be complied with.
Standards are binding if they are part of rules and regulations. It cannot be assumed that all standards, regulations and guidelines/directives mentioned in the context of the chapter are complete.

 

Please observe notes on:

 

•    Legal regulations

•    Other guidelines/directives.

 

MAN‘s own standards are often considerably more stringent than national and international standards. In some cases, MAN presupposes the application of its own standards for reasons of quality or safety. These are explicitly stated in the corresponding sections. MAN works standard can be obtained at

  http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com. Registration is required.

 

Unless expressly stated otherwise, the general tolerances apply.

 

 

1.3    Quality of execution

 

 

1.3.1    Corrosion protection

 

Surface and corrosion protection influence the service life and appearance of the chassis. The coating quality of add-on and modification parts should consequently be that of a series-production chassis. In order to ensure this requirement, MAN works standards M3297 “Corrosion-protection and coating systems for non-MAN bodies” and M3018 “Corrosion-protection and coating systems for purchased parts” are binding.

 

Mechanical joints (e.g. screws, nuts, washers, bolts) that are not painted over need optimum corrosion protection.

 

In the event of non-compliance, MAN excludes liability for the consequences.

 

Series production MAN chassis are coated with environmentally friendly, water-based two-component chassis top-coat paints at approx. 80°C. To guarantee uniform coating, the following coating structure is required for all metal component assemblies:

 

•    Bare metal or blasted component surface (SA 2.5)
•    Priming: two-component epoxy primer, approved in accordance with MAN works standard M3162-C or, if possible, cathodic dip painting to MAN works

      standard M3078-2, with zinc phosphate pre-treatment.
•    Top coat: two-component top-coat paint to MAN works standard M3094, preferably water-based; if there are no facilities for this, then solvent-based

     paint is also permitted.
•    Refer to the data sheets of the paint manufacturer for details of curing and drying times and temperatures.

 

In the selection and combination of different metals (e.g. aluminium and steel), the effect of standard electrode potential for corrosion must be considered. The possible effects of the electrochemical series with regard to corrosion on the boundary surfaces (contact corrosion) must be combated by means of appropriate measures (insulation).

 

To prevent corrosion through salt while a vehicle is stationary during the bodybuilding phase, wash all chassis with fresh water upon arrival at the bodybuilder’s premises to remove salt residue.
Further information on corrosion protection with regard to the body can be found in Chapter IV, Section 1.9.

 

 

1.3.2    Welding work on the vehicle

 

In general, welding work on the vehicle other than contained in these guidelines to fitting bodies or MAN repair instructions is not permissible.

 

Welding on components subject to design approval (e.g. connecting devices, underride guard) may only be performed by the holder of the design approval. Welding work on these components leads to the withdrawal of the design approval and may pose road safety risks!

 

Welding work on the chassis requires specialist knowledge. The workshop must therefore employ suitably trained and qualified personnel to carry out the required welding work (e.g. in Germany, according to the DVS leaflets 2510 – 2512 “Carrying out repair welding work on commercial vehicles”, and DVS leaflet 2518 “Weld criteria for use of fine-grain steels in commercial vehicle manufacture/repair”, available from the DVS publishing house).

 

The frames of MAN vehicles are made from high-strength fine-grain steel. Welding of a frame is only permissible using material identical to that used for the original frame (see Chapter III, Section 4.3). The fine-grain steel employed is highly suitable for welding. Used by a qualified welder, metal active gas (MAG) and manual metal arc (MMA) welding techniques produce high-grade and durable welded joints.

 

Basic approach:
Welding must not be carried out if the ambient temperature drops below +5°C.

It is important to prepare the welding point thoroughly to produce a high-quality joint.

 

Heat-sensitive parts in the vicinity of welded joints (e.g. electric wiring, compressed-air lines) must be protected against the effects of heat or disassembled (Fig. 01-III).

 

Fig. 01-III:    Protection of heat-sensitive parts

 

 

1)    Polyamide pipes

 

The areas where the part to be welded joins the vehicle and the earth terminal on the welding equipment must be bare metal. Any paint, corrosion, oil, grease, dirt, etc. must be removed.

 

Only DC welding is allowed - pay attention to the polarity of the electrodes.

 

Welding must be done without undercuts (see Fig. 02-III). Make sure there are no cracks in the weld seam.
Produce joint seams on main members as V or X seams in several passes.

 

Fig. 02-III:    Undercuts

 

 

1)    Weld seam

2)    Avoid undercuts at the locations shown

 

Fig. 03-III:    Avoid undercuts at the locations shown

 

 

1)    Weld seam with two passes
2)    Root pass
3)    Welding electrode

 

Vertical welding shall be carried out from bottom to top (see Fig. 04-III).

 

Fig. 04-III:    Vertical welding

 

 

1)    Welding electrode
2)    Direction of welding
3)    Profiles to be welded

 

To prevent damage to electronic subassemblies (e.g. alternator, radio, FFR, EBS, EDC, ECAS) keep to the following procedure:

 

•    Disconnect the minus and plus cables of batteries, join the loose ends of the cables (- to +).
•    Turn on the battery master switch (mechanical) or bypass the electric battery master switch on the solenoid (disconnect cables and join).
•    Attach the earth clip of the welding apparatus directly to the point to be welded, ensuring good conductivity (see above).
•    Connect the parts to be welded with each other (e.g. connect both parts to the earth clip).

 

Electronic sub-assemblies need not be disconnected if the above prerequisites are precisely met.

 

 

 

1.3.3    Drill holes, riveted and bolted connections

 

Connections between frame parts and frame add-ons (e.g. corner plates with cross member, thrust plates, platform corner pieces, tank brackets and so on) are realised by means of rivets or bolts during series production.

 

The drill holes in the frame web are to be used for connections to the frame.
The hole pattern extends in parts along the entire length of the frame side member. If required, the exact hole pattern can be retrieved from www.manted.de under “Frame rails”. Drill-hole and edge distances are shown in Fig. 05-III.
If the existing drill holes do not enable the connection to be realised, it is possible to drill holes in the web of the side member in accordance with Fig. 05-III. Drill holes can be made (in the fame web) along the entire useful length of the frame. All holes must be deburred after drilling. Remove any drilling swarf.

 

Fig. 05-III:    Distances between drill holes

 

 

a ≥ 40

b ≥ 50

c ≥ 25

d ≤ 14 on the TGL

d ≤ 16 on the TGM

d ≤ 16 on the TGS/TGX

 

Bolted joints with a strength class of at least 10.9 with a mechanical locking device are permissible on the frame. MAN recommends double-nip countersunk bolts / nuts as per MAN standard M7.012.04 (for obtaining this standard, see   http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com).

 

Bolted connections are to be carried out as per manufacturer specifications (MAN standard M3059).
This includes, for example, selection of the correct tightening torque.
If connections are disassembled, use new nuts and bolts on the tightening side when reassembling double-nip countersunk bolts. The tightening side can be recognized by slight marks on the nips of a bolt or nut flange (see Fig. 06-III).

 

Fig. 06-III:    Marks on nips on the tightening side

 

 

Alternatively, in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications it is also possible to use high-strength rivets (e.g. Huck-BOM, blind fasteners). A riveted joint must be at least equivalent to a bolted connection in terms of design and strength. In principle it is also possible to use flange bolts. MAN points out that flange bolts require a high degree of precision with respect to assembly. This applies in particular to short gripping lengths.
Drill holes for realising flange-bolt connections must be reamed prior to assembly.

 

Bolted connections of homologated assemblies and/or assemblies relevant to safety may be carried out only with the respective MAN Genuine connecting parts.

 

Drill holes in the upper and lower flange

As a matter of principle, it is not permitted to subsequently drill any holes in the upper and lower flanges of the frame side member (Fig. 07-III).

 

Fig. 07-III:    Drill holes at frame end

 

 

The only exception to drilling holes in the upper and lower flange is at the rear end of the frame behind the final cross member or the last cross member (in cases where no final cross member has been fitted). In addition, the use of thrust plates in this area is necessary. Moreover, any holes in the upper and lower flanges not used for bodywork shall nevertheless be occupied by bolted connections of the frame and auxiliary frame (Fig. 08-III).

 

Fig. 08-III:    Drill holes at frame end

 

 

1)    Auxiliary frame

2)    Direction of travel

3)    Frame end (vehicle)

 

 

 

 

2.0    Overall vehicle

 

 

2.1    General

 

This chapter contains basic terms as well as specific notes concerning the modification of MAN vehicles.
In particular, information relevant to registration must be observed.

 

 

2.2    Terms, dimensions and weights

 

The terms, dimensions and weights below are to be observed when modifying vehicles and bodywork.

 

Note:

National regulations take priority over technically permissible dimensions and weights if they restrict the technically permissible dimensions and weights.

 

 

2.2.1    Theoretical wheelbase

 

The theoretical wheelbase is a variable that assists in determining the position of the centre of gravity and the axle loads. It depends on the:

 

•    Number of axles
•    Arrangement of axles
•    Distance between axles
•    Permissible loads on individual axles

 

The theoretical wheelbase is the distance between the theoretical front-axle centerline and the theoretical rear-axle centerline.

 

Theoretical axle centerlines are used as reference points in order to simplify calculations. The reference point is needed in order to group several axles at one point. The permissible axle loads of the axles to be grouped may be the same or different.

 

An example can be seen in Fig. 09-III, where both front axles are combined to a theoretical front-axle centerline and both rear axles to a theoretical rear-axle centerline.

 

Fig. 09-III:    Theoretical wheelbase and overhang on a four-axle vehicle with two front and two rear axles (random axle-load distribution)

 

 

1)    theoretical rear-axle centerline
2)    theoretical front-axle centerline

 

l12, l23, l34                          distance between the respective axles

Gzul1, Gzul2, Gzul3, Gzul4    permissible axle load of the respective axles

lt                                      theoretical wheelbase

Ut                                    theoretical overhang

 

Formulae for calculating the theoretical wheelbase in different axle configurations are described in Chapter V Section 1.13.

 

2.2.2    Theoretical and permitted overhang lengths

 

The theoretical overhang length is the distance between the theoretical rear-axle centerline and the end of the vehicle, including its bodywork.

 

The permitted overhang is an important dimension with regard to adhering to permissible axle loads and the minimum front-axle load. As an example, Fig. 10-III shows the overhang on a three-axle chassis.

 

The permissible overhang for

 

•    two-axle vehicles is 65%

•    all other vehicles is 70%.

 

The theoretical overhang must not be longer than the permissible overhang. However, the above-mentioned figures can be exceeded by 5% in the absence of equipment for pulling a trailer.

 

The prerequisite is that the minimum front-axle loads stated in Table 01-III of Chapter III, Section 2.2.8 are maintained in every load situation.

 

The terms “theoretical wheelbase” and “theoretical rear-axle centerline” are explained in Chapter III, Section 2.2.1.

 

Fig. 10-III:    Frame overhang on a three-axle vehicle with two rear axles and same rear-axle loads

 

 

1)    theoretical rear-axle centerline

Ut    theoretical overhang

 

 

2.2.3    Permissible axle load

 

The permissible axle load is the total load on an axle or group of axles that may not be exceeded.

 

A distinction is made between

 

•    technically permissible axle load
•    nationally permissible axle load.

 

The technically permissible load on an axle or group of axles is restricted by the characteristics, condition and design of the components of the axle(s), for example the axle itself, suspension, rims and tyres.

The nationally permissible load on an axle or group of axles depends on the laws and the criteria governing the registration of vehicles in that specific country.

 

Important:
Exceeding technically permissible axle loads is forbidden!

 

Under certain circumstances, nationally permissible axle loads may be exceeded. In this regard, the following must be observed.

 

•    A certificate of exemption must be obtained from the national authority responsible.
•    A certificate of exemption can only be obtained in case where the nationally permissible axle loads are lower
     than the technically permissible axle loads.

 

 

2.2.4    Permissible gross weight

 

The permissible gross weight is the total weight of a vehicle including its load that may not be exceeded.

 

A distinction is made between

 

•    technically permissible gross weight
•    nationally permissible gross weight.

 

The technically permissible gross weight is the weight that may not be exceeded, taking into account the engineering design of the vehicle‘s components (e.g. axle concept, brake system, material stress).

The nationally permissible gross weight of a vehicle depends on the laws and the criteria governing the registration of vehicles in that specific country.

 

Important:
Exceeding the technically permissible gross weight is forbidden!

 

Under certain circumstances, the nationally permissible gross weight may be exceeded. In this regard, the following must be observed.

 

•    A certificate of exemption must be obtained from the national authority responsible.
•    A certificate of exemption can only be obtained in case where the nationally permissible gross weight
     is lower than the technically permissible gross weight.

 

 

2.2.5    Permissible gross train weight

 

The permissible gross train weight is the weight of a train combination, i.e. tractor and trailer or semitrailer tractor and semitrailer (including its load) that may not be exceeded.

 

A distinction is made between

 

•    technically permissible gross train weight
•    nationally permissible gross train weight.

 

The technically permissible gross train weight is the weight that may not be exceeded, taking into account the engineering design of the vehicle’s components (e.g. axle concept, brake system, material stress).

 

The nationally permissible gross train weight depends on the laws and the criteria governing the registration of vehicles in that specific country.

 

Important:
Exceeding the technically permissible gross train weight is forbidden! Under certain circumstances, the nationally permissible gross train weight may be exceeded. In this regard, the following must be observed.

 

•    A certificate of exemption must be obtained from the national authority responsible.
•    A certificate of exemption can only be obtained in case where the nationally permissible gross train weight is lower than the technically permissible

      gross train weight.

 

 

2.2.6    Axle overload

 

Axle overload is to be understood as the exceeding of both nationally permissible and technically permissible axle loads.

 

Axle overloads can result from:

 

•    loading the vehicle in front- or back-heavy manner
•    overloading
•    incorrect design of vehicle or body.

 

Axle overloads must be prevented under all circumstances because serious damage to the vehicle and its components may result.

 

Fig. 11-III:    Overload on front axle due to front-heavy loading

 

 

 

 

2.2.7    Wheel-load difference

 

Wheel-load difference describes the case in which there are different loads on the two wheels or sets of wheels on one axle. One-sided wheel loads must not appear in the planning of a body. Subsequent checks must show maximum 5 % wheel load difference.

 

100% is the actual axle load and not the permissible axle load.

 

Fig. 12-III:    Wheel-load difference

 

 

Formula 01-III:    Wheel-load difference

 

    ∆G    ≤    0,05 • Gtat

 

Example:

 

Given:

Actual axle load Gtat = 4000 kg

 

Wanted:

Permissible wheel-load difference

 

Solution:

   ∆G    =    0,05 • Gtat    =    0,05 • 4000 kg

   ∆G = 200 kg

 

Thus, for example, 1900 kg on one side of the axle and 2100 kg on the other are permissible.

The maximum wheel load determined does not show the permissible single-wheel load of the tyres fitted in each case.
Information concerning this can be found in the technical manuals of the tyre and rim manufacturers.

 

 

2.2.8    Minimum front-axle load

 

To ensure proper steering, the front axle of the vehicle, depending on model range and number of axles, must exhibit a given minimum load as per Table 01-III in all load conditions of the vehicle.

 

Fig. 13-III:    Minimum load on front axle

 

 

Table 01-III:    Minimum loading of front axle(s) of the TGS/TGX in every load situation expressed as a percentage of the respective vehicle’s actual weight

 

Minimum loading of front axle(s) in every load situation expressed as a percentage of the respective vehicle's actual gross weight
GW = gross weight
RDT = rigid-drawbar trailer
CAT = center-axle trailer

Number of axles

Wheel configuration

Gross weight of vehicle

Without

RDT / CAT

With RDT / CAT
Gross weight of trailer

≤ 18 t

Tridem RDT / CAT,

GW > 18 t

Other tail load, e.g. crane, liftgate

Two axles

4x2, 4x4H,
4x4

18 t

25%

25%

35%

30%

More than
two axles*

6x2/2, 6x2/4,
6x2-2, 6x2-4,
6x4, 6x4-4,
6x4H/2, 6x4H/4,
6x4H-2, 6x4H-4,
6x6, 6x6 H,
8x2-4, 8x2-6, 8x4,
8x4/4, 8x4-4,
8x4H-6, 8x6,
8x6H, 8x8

24 - 41 t

20%

25%**

30%**

25%**

With more than one front axle the percentual value refers to the sum of the front-axle loads.

* = three-axle vehicles with a liftable axle are to be considered as two-axle vehicles when lifted. In this condition the higher minimum front-axle load for two-axle vehicles applies.
** = -2% for steered leading/trailing axles, only applies to vehicles that are loaded and unloaded with payloads

 

With combined rear loads like rigid drawbar trailers with loading crane for example, the higher minimum front-axle load applies.

 

The values apply including any additional tail loads such as

 

•    nose weight through central axle trailer,
•    loading crane on vehicle tail,
•    Lift gates
•    transportable fork-lift trucks.

 

 

2.2.9    Calculating the axle load and weighing procedure

 

It is essential that an axle load calculation be completed in order to ensure correct design of the body.
The weights given in the sales documents only apply to production standard vehicles. Weight differences can be caused by optional equipment or manufacturing tolerances. Manufacturing inaccuracies (within tolerances) may occur.

 

Achieving optimum compatibility between bodywork and truck is only possible if the vehicle is weighed before any work on the body is commenced. The weights thus obtained are then taken as a basis for an axle load calculation.

 

The vehicle must be weighed subject to following conditions:

 

•    Without the driver
•    With a fully filled AdBlue® tank and fully filled fuel tank
•    With the handbrake released and the vehicle secured with chocks
•    If fitted with air suspension, raise the vehicle to normal driving position
•    Liftable axle(s) must be raised to the normal driving position (as in loaded condition)
•    Do not actuate any moving-off aid.

 

Observe the following sequence when weighing a vehicle (leading or trailing axle relates to the rear axle):

 

Two-axle vehicles:

 

•    1st axle
•    2nd axle
•    whole vehicle as a check

 

Three-axle vehicles with two rear axles:

 

•    1st axle
•    2nd together with 3rd axle
•    whole vehicle as a check

 

Four axle vehicle with two front and two rear axles:

 

•    1st together with 2nd axle
•    3rd together with 4th axle
•    whole vehicle as a check

 

Four-axle vehicle with one front and three rear axles:

 

•    1st axle
•    2nd together with 3rd and 4th axles
•    whole vehicle as a check.

 

 

2.2.10    Rolling circumference and difference in rolling circumference

 

The rolling circumference is the distance a tyre covers in the course of a single revolution without slip.

 

Different tyre sizes on the front and rear axle(s) can only be fitted to all-wheel-drive vehicles (including HydroDrive) if the difference in rolling circumference of the tyres used does not exceed 2%.
In the case of non-all-wheel-drive vehicles, the difference in rolling circumference may not exceed 10%.

 

The basis for calculation is always the circumference of the smaller tyre.

 

 

2.3    Modifications to the overall vehicle

 

 

2.3.1    Modifications to the wheelbase

 

Every change of wheelbase requires manufacturer’s confirmation. It is assumed that any change to the wheelbase will only be carried out subsequent to receipt of the manufacturer’s approval.

 

Notes on applying for manufacturer’s confirmation can be found in Chapter I, Section 5.2.1. The conversion data file associated with changes to the wheelbase and/or frame overhang will be provided together with the confirmation.

 

Technical design regulations applicable to steering (in particular 70/311 EEC, ECE-R79) mean that, depending upon the number and type of steered axles, wheelbase, tyres axle loads and gross weight, chassis of MAN model ranges are fitted with different steering wheels (diameter), steering gear (range of ratios) and steering oil
piping (cooling coils).

 

As a basic principle, it must be ensured that the new wheelbase is within the model limit.

“Within the model limit” means that the new wheelbase is neither
   -    shorter than the shortest nor
   -    longer than the longest
standard wheelbase for the same model of vehicle.

 

“The same model of vehicle” means vehicles with
   -    the same model number
   -    the same type of vehicle and
   -    the same wheel configuration

 

Any shortening or extending of wheelbases exceeding this may only be carried out by MAN or its qualified conversion suppliers (“qUL”) subsequent to consultation with MAN.

 

In addition, the following applies to TGS/TGX vehicles

 

•    fitted with hydraulic forced steering of the “ZF-Servocom® RAS” (rear-axle steering) trailing axle (e.g. 6x2-4, 6x4-4 or 8x2-4): extending and shortening

     the wheelbase is possible. Depending on the extent to which the wheelbase from the first - Second axle has been modified, steering arms with

     different steering angles must be installed on the trailing axle. The steering arms to be used can be found in the confirmation.
•   fitted with electronic-hydraulic steering of the “ZF-Servocom RAS-EC (rear-axle steering – electronically controlled)” leading axle

     (e.g. all 6x2/4 and 8x4/4): shortening the wheelbase is possible, but not extending it. Modifications to the steering system, however, are not permitted.
•    fitted with electronic-hydraulic steering of the leading or trailing axle “EHLA®”: it is possible to extend and shorten the wheelbase. Modifications to

     the steering system, however, are not permitted.
•    fitted with two mechanically steered front axles (e.g. 8x4): steered axles may only be relocated by MAN or its qualified conversion suppliers.

 

Type of wheelbase modification

Modifications to the wheelbase can be carried out in one of the following two ways:

 

I.    Relocating the entire rear-axle unit
II.    Disconnecting the frame side members (inserting or removing a section of the frame).

 

Irrespective of the type of wheelbase modification, the following must be observed.

 

•    The maximum distance between cross members subsequent to wheelbase modification may not exceed 1500 mm. A tolerance of +100 mm is permissible.
•    Modifications to the propshaft train must be carried out according to these guidelines to fitting bodies (see Chapter III, Section 6.5 and the instructions

     provided by the propshaft manufacturer. If the new wheelbase is the same as a standard wheelbase, then the arrangement of the propshaft and

     cross members must be the same as that for a vehicle with standard wheelbase.
•    Chapter III, Sections 6.3.5.2 and 8.2.1 apply with regards to the relocation of air and electrical lines. CAN cables may not be cut.

     For this reason, longer routes must be selected when shortening wheelbases. More over, rings and loops may not be formed when routing cables.

     During wheelbase extensions all rear-axle related control units and sensors must be relocated with the axle, which is why adapter cable harnesses
     are available for all the aforementioned equipment. System, method and item numbers are described in detail in Chapter III, Section 8.2.

 

I.    Relocating the entire rear-axle unit

 

If the rear-axle unit is relocated, the axle mounting, axle guide and cross members must be attached using rivets or MAN double-nip countersunk bolts in accordance with Chapter III, Section 1.3.3 of the MAN guidelines to fitting bodies. The distance between drill holes specified there must be adhered to! In the case of vehicles with dropped frames, the axle guide and suspension (e.g. spring hangers, longitudinal control arm brackets) may not be located in the area in front of or within the bends in the frame. A minimum clearance of 100 mm to the second frame bend is assumed (see Fig. 14-III).

 

Fig. 14-III:    Forbidden zone for rear axle guide

 

 

II.    Separating the frame side member

 

f the wheelbase modification is carried out by separating the frame side member, it is mandatory for welding to comply with the specifications in the MAN guidelines to fitting bodies (see Chapter III, Section 1.3.2). The original frame material must be used for any part inserted in the frame, e.g. frame side members, frame inserts. The material specifications can be found in Chapter III, Section 4.2. It is recommended that the frame side members are pre-heated to 150°C – 200°C.

 

The frame must not be separated in the vicinity of:
•    Axle guides and suspension (e.g. spring hangers, trailing arm mountings), minimum distance 100 mm
•    Bends in the frame, minimum distance 100 mm
•    Points where loads are introduced
•    Gearbox mountings and cross members (also transfer cases on all-wheel-drive vehicles)
•    Engine mounting
•    Points where loads are introduced from bodywork

 

The area in which weld seams for wheelbase modifications are permitted begins at least 100 mm behind the bend and ends at most 100 mm ahead of the frontmost rear-axle guide (see Fig. 15-III).

 

Welded seams along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle are not permitted!

 

Fig. 15-III:    Permissible area for welding dropped frames    

 

    

 

If the wheelbase modification is carried out by separating the frame side member, weld seams for shortened wheelbases must be secured by means of inserts. Frame inserts must be in accordance with the following:

 

Fig. 16-III:    Inserts for wheelbase shortening

 

 

1)    Frame insert

2)    Frame side member

 

Fig. 17-III:    Inserts for wheelbase extension

 

 

1)    Frame insert
2)    Frame side member
3)    Profile section

 

Location no. 1, Fig. 16-III and 17-III:

 

•    Existing drill holes in the frame in the vicinity of the angle inserts are to be used. The following applies to the arrangement of drill holes on

     the frame side member: distance between holes ≥ 50 mm, edge distances ≥ 25 mm. The hole pattern can be found in the corresponding

     frame side member drawing.

 

Location number 2, Fig. 16-III and 17-III:

 

•    Where parts are in contact, the weld seam must be levelled (no. 2 in Fig. 16-III and 17-III).
     Weld seam as per assessment group BS, DIN 8563, Part 3.

 

Location no. 3, Fig. 16-III and 17-III:

 

•    Where wheelbases are extended by means of inserting a frame side member profile, the material specifications as set down in the frame-section table

     and the maximum permissible wheelbases as per the MAN guidelines to fitting bodies must be observed. The frame track may not be changed.

     If the maximum distances between frame cross members is exceeded, supplementary cross members must be inserted.

     Moreover, the following notes on the dimensions of inserts must be observed.

 

Fig. 18-III:    Inserts for wheelbase extension

 

 

Key

 

•    Height (h) ≥ Width (a)
•    Width (a) is the same as the inner width of the frame (b), tolerance -5 mm.
•    Thickness is the same as frame thickness, tolerance -1 mm. Material min. S355J2G3 (St.52-3)
•    Rolled sections are not permitted.

 

On some long-wheelbase chassis, frame inserts are already fitted between the front and rear axles at the factory. Frame inserts may not be welded together with the frame side members. This can be avoided for example, by inserting a copper-based separating foil which is removed once the welding work is completed.
Inserts used in changing the wheelbase may be simply butted-up to one another and may either be welded together or joined with an overlapping plate (see Fig.19-III, 20-III).

 

Fig. 19-III:    Insert covering, outside and inside

 

 

The joint between the frame and the insert seam may not coincide with a weld seam in the frame - a distance of 100 mm between seams must be observed.
This is easy to achieve if during cutting of the frame the location of the frame-insert joint is already taken into account.

 

Fig. 20-III:    Projecting inserts, outside and inside

 

 

 

 

2.3.2    Modifying the frame overhang

 

“Frame overhang modification” refers to any changes in length from the middle of the last rear axle to the frame end. As a basic principle it is possible to extend or shorten the overhang, provided the generally applicable national conditions for registration are met.

 

Modifications to the overhang can change the location of the center of gravity for payload and body as well as the resulting axle loads. Prior to commencing work, an axle-load calculation must be carried in order to determine whether the respective permissible axle load can be complied with (see Chapter V, Section 1.10 for an example of an axle-load calculation).

 

Frame overhang extension
Frame extensions are only permissible using material identical to that used for the original frame (see Chapter III, Section 4.2). Extensions must always be carried out on the frame end. Extensions consisting of several profile sections are not permitted (cf. Fig. 21-III).

 

Fig. 21-III:    Extension of frame overhang

 

 

1)    Frame extension

 

The specifications concerning welding on the frame (see MAN guidelines to fitting bodies, Chapter III, Section 1.3.2) must always be observed.

 

Frame overhang extensions may not be carried out the area of the rear-axle mounting and guide or the axle suspension (e.g. the air-spring-disc, leaf-spring-bearing and stabiliser mountings). The necessary minimum distance of 100 mm must be maintained here. Cross members located in this area may not be relocated but must be left where they are.If the distance between any two cross members to the rear of the frame overhang extension is greater than 1500 mm ± 100 mm, a supplementary cross member must be provided.

 

Fig. 22-III:    Example of a leaf-sprung rear-axle unit with associated fastenings

 

 

1)    Center of rear axle
2)    Axle mounting
3)    Fastening of axle-suspension elements (leaf spring)
4)    Frame side member

 

Fig. 23-III:    Example of an air-sprung rear-axle unit with associated fastenings

 

 

1)    Center of rear axle
2)    Axle mounting
3)    Fastening of axle-suspension elements (air-spring-disc)
4)    Frame side member

 

Note:
On certain bodies it is sensible to use frame inserts in order to reinforce the modified overhang. For this reason, MAN recommends using frame inserts. The dimensions of the frame inserts depend on the following criteria:

 

•    Type of load
•    Introduction of force
•    Body design
•    Body type
•    Dimension of auxiliary frame

 

Correspondingly prepared cable harnesses for frame extensions are available from MAN.
A detailed description of the procedure for extending cable harnesses, including a list of all permissible part numbers, can be found Chapter III, Section 8.2. Notes on routing cable harnesses are to be observed.
For extending and re-routing compressed-air lines, refer to Chapter III, Section 6.3.5 of the guidelines to fitting bodies.

 

Shortening the frame overhang

When a frame overhang is shortened, it is vital to adhere to the necessary minimum distance of 100 mm when cutting the frame side member in the area of the rear-axle mounting and guide, as well as in the area of the axle suspension (e.g. the air-spring-disc, leaf-spring and stabiliser mountings). The cut must be so positioned that drill holes are not cut. If forces are introduced via drill holes at the frame end, it is mandatory to adhere to the necessary distance to the extreme fibre (Fig. 24-III Distance a).

 

Fig. 24-III:    Distance to extreme fibre of frame end

 

 

a      Distance to extreme fibre
1)    Frame side member
2)    Frame overhang to be removed
3)    Frame cut

 

Any cross members in the area of the cut must be relocated so that they can be bolted to the frame side member again.

 

The following applies:

 

Distance between cross members ≤1500 mm ±100 mm.

 

Where a frame overhang has been shortened, the cable harness installed as standard remains in use. In such cases, Chapter III, Section 8.2 must be observed with regard to routing lines. Compressed-air lines may be shortened in accordance with Chapter III, Section 6.3.5.

 

Note:
MAN recommends reinforcing frames by means of frame inserts (see also frame overhang extension).

 

Use of final cross member
Frame overhangs shortened or extended in accordance with the above specifications (e.g. distance between cross members, length of overhang) do not require a final cross member when MAN underride protection is fitted, because this simultaneously functions as the final cross member (not on Type N48).

 

A final cross member is required:

 

•    For operation with a trailer, also when ball-type couplings are in use (mounting of the socket)
•    If a liftgate is fitted (because MAN underride protection is not fitted in this case)
•    In the case of other rear loads or point loads (e.g. forklifts that are carried on the vehicle, loading crane mounted on the frame end).

 

Fig. 25-III:    Frame end without final cross member

 

 

 

 

2.3.3    Modifying the wheel configuration

 

Modifying the wheel configuration means:

 

•    fitting of additional axles,
•    removal of axles,
•    Converting non-steered axles to steered axles
•    Converting steered axles to non-steered axles

 

Modifying the wheel configuration is forbidden. These conversions are carried out exclusively by MAN and its qualified conversion suppliers (“qUL”). Manufacturer’s confirmation is necessary in every case.

 

 

2.3.4    Changing the tyre type

 

Every change of tyre type requires manufacturer’s confirmation. Notes on applying for manufacturer’s confirmation can be found in Chapter I, Section 5.2.

 

The conversion data file associated with changes to the tyre type will, if required, be provided together with the confirmation.

 

Technical limit values with regard to changing the tyre type can be found in Chapter I, Section 2.2.10.

 

The notes in Chapter IV “Body” relating to anti-skid chains, clearance and the load ratings of tyres and rims must be observed.

 

 

2.3.5    Changing the vehicle type and interchangeable operation as semitrailer tractor/truck

 

Conversion of a truck into a semitrailer tractor or of a semitrailer tractor into a truck or using the same vehicle alternatively as a semitrailer tractor or truck requires manufacturer’s confirmation from MAN.

 

Notes on applying for manufacturer’s confirmation can be found in Chapter I, Section 5.2 “Manufacturer’s confirmation”. Conversion of a semitrailer tractor to a truck or vice versa requires modification of the vehicle’s parameterisation. The conversion data file associated with the chassis modification will be provided together
with the confirmation.

 

Depending on the selected vehicle (vehicle model), the change of vehicle type as well as interchangeable operation may possibly require conversion measures to be taken in the area of the axle guide (e.g. springs, shock absorbers, stabilisers) and the brakes.
The scope of such conversion measure depends on the selected vehicle model and the desired utilisation.

 

Therefore, in the case of new-build vehicles to be used as both semitrailer tractors and trucks, it must be determined beforehand whether a truck chassis or a semitrailer tractor is to be used.

 

One exception in the TGS and TGX model ranges is the vehicle transporter: please refer to Chapter IV, Section 3.13 “Vehicle transporters”.

 

Operation of the following vehicle models (model numbers) as combined semitrailer tractors/trucks or conversions to trucks are not permitted. 05X, 08S, 13S, 13X.

 

 

2.3.6    Retrofitting additional units, attachments and accessories

 

If units, attachments or accessories are to be retrofitted to the vehicle, they must be harmonised with MAN when the measures are in the planning phase (for address see “Publisher” above).
Full and verifiable documentation enabling a decision to be taken on the feasibility of the planned measures must be submitted.

 

The background to this is that retrofitting usually involves intervention in the control unit’s CAN. This also involves additions to the programming of a vehicle’s software. Retrofitted systems may under certain circumstances not be assimilated into the vehicle’s own Trucknology® “Time maintenance system” or “Flexible maintenance system”.
For this reason, in the case of retrofitted original parts, the same maintenance convenience will not necessarily result as in a first-time configuration.

 

Subsequent modification or expansion of the vehicle parameterisation can only be carried out with the help of the MAN Service outlet responsible and MAN approval of the programs.

 

Note:
Under no circumstances does MAN accept design responsibility or responsibility for the consequences of retrofits that it has not approved. The stipulations stated in these guidelines and in approvals must be adhered to.
Approvals, reports and certification produced by third parties (e.g. test institutes) do not automatically mean the issue of approval by MAN.

 

MAN may refuse approval even though third parties have issued appropriate clearance. Unless otherwise agreed, approval only refers to the actual installation of the equipment. Approval does not mean that MAN has checked the entire system with regard to strength, vehicle handling etc., and has accepted responsibility for warranty of products. This responsibility is borne by the executing company. The retrofitting of subassemblies and the like can alter the technical data of a vehicle. The respective equipment manufacturer and/or the dealer/importer is responsible for determining and issuing this new data.

 

 

2.4    Homologated vehicle components / vehicle components relevant to safety

 

This section provides an overview of the most important homologated components of the vehicle and/or components of the vehicle relevant to safety. They may not be changed without permission from MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

If any changes are made, the affected parts must be accepted again by a technical inspectorate.
The MAN warranty, however, is invalidated.

 

To be admissible for registration, vehicles must be configured in such a manner that they comply with the respective country-specific laws. In order to ensure this in series production, parts relevant to registration are homologated. Because of this, individual acceptances are no longer necessary.

 

Some of these components are listed below.

 

•    Exhaust silencer
•    Axles and running gear
•    ADR components
•    Trailer bracket and coupling
•    Driveline and wheels
•    Brake system
•    Electrical components
•    Cab
•    Front cross member
•    Camera system
•    Fuel tank with mounting, hose and pump
•    Steering system
•    Lighting equipment
•    Air intake
•    Engine with engine attachments
•    Register coupling
•    Fifth-wheel coupling
•    Final cross member for trailer coupling
•    Underride protection, rear and side
•    Adjuster mechanism

 

Further information concerning the homologation or relevance to safety of parts not listed above can be requested from MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

 

 

 

3.0    Cab

 

 

3.1    General

 

Modifications to the cab’s structure (e.g. incisions/cut-outs, changes to the support structure including the seats and seat fastenings, cab extensions, lowering of the roof) as well as modifications to the cab mountings and tilting mechanism are to be avoided wherever possible.

 

If modifications to the cab are nevertheless necessary for technical reasons relevant to the body, they must be harmonised with MAN during the planning phase (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

Modifications to the cab may only be carried out by MAN or its qualified conversion suppliers (“qUL”).

 

The generally applicable national conditions for registration must be met in every case.

 

 

3.2    Cabs

 

This section provides an overview of cabs (up to the Euro 5 and Euro 6 exhaust-emission standards) including technical data for all the model ranges. The tabular overviews provide information on designation, dimensions and a schematic representation for identification purposes.

 

In general, MAN offers the following cabs (without classification in the corresponding model ranges):

 

•    C, M, L, crew cab
•    Narrow cabs
•    e.g. for short-haul and distribution work
•    LX cab
•    Narrow cab with high roof
•    e.g. for special applications and national long-distance transport
•    XLX, XXL cab
•    Wide cab
•    e.g. for international long-haul transport
•    XL cab
•    Wide cab
•    e.g. for special applications in short-haul transport

 

TGS/TGX cabs are differentiated by their width.

 

TGS/TGX chassis are supplied with the following cab variants:

 

Table 02-III:    TGS cabs up to Euro 5 exhaust-emission standard

 

TGS up to Euro 5 exhaust-emission standard
Designation Dimensions* Views
Name

Technical designation

Length Width

Height
(from Cab-0

Side Front
M Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L17S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R17S
1.880 2.240 1737
L Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L34S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R34S
2.280 2.240 1737
LX Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L39S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R39S
2.280 2.240 2035

 

*) Cab dimensions without added on parts such as wings, skirts, mirrors, spoiler, etc.

 

Table 03-III:    TGS cabs up to Euro 6 exhaust-emission standard

 

TGS cabs up to Euro 6 exhaust-emission standard
Designation Dimensions* Views
Name

Technical designation

Length Width

Height
(from Cab-0

Side Front
M Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L17S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R17S
1.880 2.240 1737
L Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L34S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R34S
2.280 2.240 1737
LX Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L39S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R39S
2.280 2.240 2035

 

*) Cab dimensions without added on parts such as wings, skirts, mirrors, spoiler, etc.

 

Table 04-III:    TGX cabs up to Euro 5 exhaust-emission standard

 

TGX up to Euro 5 exhaust-emission standard
Designation Dimensions* Views
Name

Technical designation

Length Width

Height
(from Cab-0

Side Front
XL Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L44S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R44S
2.280 2.440 1737
XLX Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L49S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R49S
2.280 2.440 2035
XXL Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L45S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R45S
2.280 2.440 2260

 

*) Cab dimensions without added on parts such as wings, skirts, mirrors, spoiler, etc.

 

Table 05-III:    TGX cabs for Euro 6 exhaust-emission standard

 

TGX up to Euro 6 exhaust-emission standard
Designation Dimensions* Views
Name

Technical designation

Length Width

Height
(from Cab-0

Side Front
XL Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L44S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R44S
2.280 2.440 1737
XLX Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L49S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R49S
2.280 2.440 2035
XXL Left-hand drive vehicle
F99L45S
Right-hand drive vehicle
F99R45S
2.280 2.440 2260

 

*) Cab dimensions without added on parts such as wings, skirts, mirrors, spoiler, etc.

 

 

3.3  Spoilers, roof extensions, roofwalk

 

It is possible to retrofit a roof spoiler or an aerodynamics kit. Genuine MAN spoilers and aerodynamics kits for retrofitting can be obtained from the Spare-parts Service. Drawings can be found in MANTED under “Cabs”.
Only the proper attachment points may be used when retrofitting components to the cab roof.

 

Fastenings on cab roofs

 

Fig. 26a-III:    XXL cab (L/R45)                       Fig. 26b-III:    XLX cab (L/R49)

 

   

 

 

Fig. 26c-III:    LX cab (L/R39)                         Fig. 26d-III:    XL, L and M cab (L/R 44, 34, 17)

 

   

 

Table 06-III:    Attachment points on cab roofs

 

 

Position

Bolt / drill hole

Tightening torque

Roof spoiler with plastic high roof

3/3a
4/4a

M8

20 Nm

Roof spoiler with steel roof

24/24a
25/25a
26/26a

M8

20 Nm

Sunblind with steel roof

20/20a
21/21a
22/22a
23/23a

M8

20 Nm

Sun blind with plastic high roof

7/7a
8/8a
9/9a
10/10a

St 6.3 /
Ø 5.5 mm

10 Nm

Air horn with plastic high roof

14/14a
15/15a
16/16a
17/17a
18/18a
19/19a

St 6.3 /
Ø 5.5 mm

10 Nm

Rotating beacons with plastic high roof

11/11a
12/12a
13/13a

St 6.3 /
Ø 5.5 mm

10 Nm

 

•    Drilling designation “a” is symmetric with y = 0
•    Maximum load per bolt: 7.49 -12 t
•    Maximum roof load: 30 kg
•    Bolted connections over 3 offset points (not in one line)
•    Center of gravity of roof extensions max. 200 mm above mounting level
•    Drill holes in the plastic raised roof (laminated-in plates):
   -    Drilling axis parallel to the surface
   -    Drilling at an angle of ±2 mm to the surface
   -    Drilling depth 10 mm +2 mm

 

Information on additional attachment for roofwalk

 

Table 07-III:    Additional attachment for roofwalk

 

 

Position

Bolt / drill hole

Tightening torque

Roofwalk on rear wall
(all cabs)

1/1a
2/2a

M8 /
Ø 11,2 mm

20 Nm

 

Fig. 26e-III:    Additional attachment for roofwalkAdditional attachment for roofwalk

 

 

•    Drilling designation “a” is symmetric with y = 0
•    A support for the roofwalk must be fitted to the rear wall
•    All 4 attachment points 1/1a, 2/2a must be used
•    The roofwalk must never be installed ahead of the rear edge of the roof hatch.
•    Maximum weight of roofwalk: 30 kg
•    Maximum load on roofwalk: 100 kg

 

 

3.4    Roof sleeper cabs

 

Roof sleeper cabs (Topsleepers) can be fitted when the following prerequisites are met:

 

•    Body approval must be obtained from MAN. This is the responsibility of the manufacturer of the roof sleeper cab and not of the workshop fitting it

     (see Chapter III, Section 2.3.6).
•    The manufacturer of the roof sleeper cab is responsible for compliance with regulations (in particular safety regulations, e.g. trade association guidelines),      regulations and laws (e.g. GGVS/ADR).
•    A suitable method of preventing the cab from closing by itself when it is tilted must be installed (e.g. by fitting a securing device).
•    If the tilting process differs from that for the standard MAN cab, a simple but comprehensive operating manual must be drawn up.
•    The antennas fitted on original MAN cab roofs must be properly relocated. This is intended to ensure good quality reception and transmission of electromagnetic      radiation in accordance with the EMC Directive. Extension of the antenna cable is not permitted.
•    When the cab has been fitted, the dimensions stated for the resulting cab center of gravity must be adhered to and verified (see Fig. 27-III)
•    The maximum weights listed in Table 08-III must be adhered to.
•    Fitting a roof sleeper cab is permitted only when the cab mount is air-sprung.

 

Fig. 27-III:    Cab center of gravity with top sleeper

 

 

1)    Topsleeper center of gravity
2)    Resulting center of gravity
3)    Cab center of gravity
4)    Cab floor

 

Table 08-III:    Roof sleeper cab, maximum weights of bodies/fittings

 

Cab
designation

Technical code

Requirements

Max. mass of roof sleeper cab with
equipment

Left-hand drive vehicle

Right-hand drive vehicle

M

F99 L17 S

F99 R17 S

Air-sprung cab mount

130 kg

L

F99 L34 S

F99 R34 S

 

180 kg

XL

F99 L44 S

F99 R44 S

 

200 kg

LX

F99 L39 S

F99 R39 S

Cabs with high roof
ex works, no modification permitted

XLX

F99 L49 S

F99 R49 S

XXL

F99 L45 S

F99 R45 S

 

 

 

3.5    Fastening the hazardous goods plate to the front flap

 

In order to avoid damage to the front flap through affixing the hazardous goods plate, it is to be fitted in accordance with Service Information (SI 288606). This is available from MAN specialist workshops.

 

The position at which the hazardous goods plate is to be fastened to the front flap has been defined and approved by MAN.

 

The following applies:

 

   -    The statutorily permitted vehicle width must not be exceeded.
   -    The supply of air to the radiator/engine must not be impaired.
   -    The connection must be adequately strong.
   -    Generally applicable guidelines concerning the transport of hazardous goods must be observed.

 

The description of the assembly procedure together with the necessary distances/clearances and the standard parts to be used can be found in Service Information (SI 288606).

 

Fig. 28-III:    Schematic representation of the defined positions of the hazardous goods plate

 

 

 

 

4.0    Chassis frame

 

 

4.1    General

 

The frame forms the basis of the chassis. It accommodates the axles, the driveline with engine, gearbox and transfer case and carries the cab and bodywork. Modifications to the chassis frame must be carried out in accordance with the specifications set down in Chapter III, Section 2.3.

 

 

4.2    Frame materials

 

Modifications to the frame side members and cross members of the chassis are permitted only when the original frame material is used.

 

Table 09-III:    Steel materials for MAN chassis frames

 

Material no.

Old material designation

Old standard

σ0,2
N/mm2

σ0,2
N/mm2

New material designation

New standard

Profile nos.

1.0980

QStE420TM

SEW 092

≥ 420

480-620

S420MC

DIN EN 10149-2

5, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41,  42

1.0984

QStE500TM

SEW 092

≥ 500

550-700

S500MC

DIN EN 10149-2

31, 32, 34, 40, 46

 

500

560-700

LNE500

NBR 6656:2008

43, 45

 

The assignment of model-range-specific frame profiles (profile numbers), their material parameters and the model-related allocation of frame profiles can be found in Chapter III, Section 4.3.

 

 

 

4.3    Frame profiles

 

The profile data of frame side members for the specific model ranges and their model allocation is listed in tabular form below.

 

Fig. 29-III:    Profile data of frame side members

 

 

S    Surface center of gravity

 

Table 10-III:    Profile data for frame side members TGS/TGX

 

No H

mm

h

mm

Bo

mm

Bu

mm

t

mm

R

mm

G

kg/m

σ0,2

N/mm2

σB

N/mm2

A

Mm2

eX

mm

eY

mm

lX

cm4

WX1

cm3

WX2

cm3

lY

cm4

WY1

cm3

WY2

cm3

31 270 254 85 85 8 10 26 500 550..700 3296 20 135 3255 241 241 201 101 31
32 270 251 85 85 9,5 10 30 500 550..700 3879 21 135 3779 280 280 232 110 36
33 334 314 85 85 10 10 37 420 480..620 4711 19 167 6691 401 401 257 135 39
34 270 256 85 85 6,8 10 22 500 550..700 2821 19 135 2816 209 209 174 92 26
431) 270 254 85 85 8 10 26 500 560..700 3296 20 135 3255 241 241 201 201 31
45 270 251 85 85 9,5 10 30 500 560..700 3879 21 135 3779 280 280 232 110 36


1)   500 as per Brazilian standard NBR 6656:2008, for TGX in Latin America (last updated 03 2010: CKD models 28X.88X).

 

Table 11-III gives the model-related allocation of frame side members in examples applying on the date of publication of these guidelines. The list is arranged in the order of increasing tonnage classes and does not claim to be up-to-date or complete. The frame main member profile that is used is detailed in binding form in the current:

 

•    chassis drawing
•    technical data sheet for the corresponding vehicle, see www.manted.de “Chassis”

 

Table 11-III:    Model-related allocation of frame side member profiles

 

Tonnage Type Vehicle Wheelbase Profile number
TGS TGX
18 t 03S TGS 18.xxx 4x2 BB 31
05X TGX 18.xxx BLS-EL
BLS
06S 06X TGS/TGX 18.xxx
BL
08S TGS 18.xxx BLS-TS 34
10S 10X TGS/TGX 18.xxx LL 31
LLS
13S 13X LLS-U 31, 42
15S 15X LL-U 31
22S 22X 4x4 H BL
BLS
52S TGS 18.xxx 4x4 BBS
BB
52W BB-WW
78X TGX 18.xxx 4x2 BLS
80S TGS 18.xxx 4x4 BL
80S BLS
24 t 24S 24X TGS/TGX 24.xxx 6x2/2 BLS 31
45S 45X LL-U 31
26 t 18S 18X TGS/TGX 26.xxx 6x2-2 BLS 31
BL
18W TGS 26.xxx BL-WW
BLS-WW
21S 21X TGS/TGX 26.xxx LL
LLS
24S TGS 26.xxx 6x2/4 BL
24X TGS/TGX 26.xxx 6x2/2 BLS
TGX 26.xxx 6x2/4
26S 26X TGS/TGX 26.xxx 6x4 BBS
BB 3900 mm
> 3900 mm 32
30S 30X BL 31
BLS
30W TGS 26.xxx BLS-WW
35S TGS/TGX 26.xxx 6x4 H-2 BL
BLS
42S 42X 6x4 H/2 BLS
6x4 H/4 BLS
TGS 26.xxx BL
70S TGS/TGX 26.xxx 6x6 H BL
BLS
78W TGS 26.xxx 6x4 BL-WW-CKD
BLS-WW-CKD
82S 6x6 BL
BLS
56S BB 3900 mm
> 3900 mm 32
BBS 31
28 t 19W TGS 28.xxx 6x2-2 BL-WW 31
BLS-WW
28X TGX 28.xxx 6x4 BBS-CKD 43, 45
71S TGS 28.xxx 6x4 H-4 BL 31
73W 6x2-2 BLS-WW-CKD
BL-WW-CKD
74S 6x2-4 BL
88X TGX 28.xxx 6x2-2 BLS-CKD 45
89S TGS 28.xxx BL 31
BLS
84S 6x4-4 BL
89X TGX 28.xxx 6x2-2
BLS
33 t 26S 26X TGS/TGX 33.xxx 6x4 BBS 31
BB 3900 mm
> 3900 mm 32
26W TGS 33.xxx BB-WW 3900 mm 31
3900 mm 32
BBS-WW 31
30S 30X TGS/TGX 33.xxx BL
BLS
30W TGS 33.xxx BLS-WW
47S 6x6 H BB
BBS
56W 6x6 BBS-WW
BB-WW
76W 6x4 BBS-WW-CKD
BB-WW-CKD 3900 mm
3900 mm 32
79X TGX 33 BLS 31
BL
82S TGS 33.xxx 6x6 BL 4200 mm
4200 mm 32
BLS 31
56S BB 3900 mm 31
> 3900 mm 32
BBS 31
35 t 37S TGS 35.xxx 8x4 BB 31
41S BL
59S 8x6 BL
60W 8x8 BB-WW
73S 8x4 H-6 BL
90S 8x2-4 BL
92S 92X TGS/TGX 35.xxx 8x4-4
93S TGS 35.xxx 8x6 BB
96S
37 t 39S TGS 37.xxx 8x4 BB 31
40 t 34W TGS 40.xxx 6x4 BB-WW 32
34W BBS-WW
58S 6x6 BBS
58S BB
58W BB-WW
58W BBS-WW
77W 6x4 BB-WW-CKD
41 t 39S TGS 41.xxx 8x4 BB 32
39W BB-WW
60W 8x8 BB-WW
79W 8x4 BB-WW-CKD
86X TGX 41.xxx 8x4/4 BBS 33
87X 8x4/4 BLS
93S TGS 41.xxx 8x6 BB 32
94X TGX 41.xxx 8x4/4 BBS 33
95X 8x4/4 BLS
96S TGS 41.xxx 8x8 BB 32

 

 

 

5.0    Frame attachments

 

 

5.1    General

 

Frame attachments are parts whose attachment points are located on the frame.

 

These include, for example:

 

•    Fuel and AdBlue tank
•    Side underride protection
•    Underride protection
•    Battery box
•    Spare wheel
•    Exhaust silencer
•    Mudguard

 

Fig. 30-III:    Example frame attachments

 

 

 

 

5.2    Front underride protection

 

Motor vehicles used for the transport of goods that have at least four wheels and a maximum permissible mass of over 3.5 t must be fitted with front underride protection that is approved in accordance with Directive 2000/40/EC.

 

This shall not apply to:

 

•    Offroad vehicles
•    vehicles whose application is not compatible with the regulations for front underride protection.

 

The following criteria must be met in order to obtain registration as an off-road vehicle:

 

•    At least 50% of the wheels are driven.
•    A differential lock or ASR is fitted.
•    Gradeability of the individual vehicle ≥ 25%
•    Plus at least four of the following requirements:
   -    Approach angle ≥ 25°
   -    Departure angle ≥ 25°
   -    Ramp angle ≥ 25°
   -    Ground clearance beneath the front axles is at least 250 mm.
   -    Ground clearance beneath the rear axles is at least 250 mm.
   -    Ground clearance between the axles is at least 300 mm.

 

Vehicles that do not meet the criteria for an off-road vehicle are fitted with FUP that complies with the requirements of Directive 2000/40/EC.

 

All-wheel-drive vehicles (wheel configurations e.g. 4x4, 6x4-4, 6x6, 8x6 and 8x8) and vehicles that meet the off-road criteria can be registered as off-road vehicles and are therefore not fitted with front underride protection at the factory.

 

If it is not possible to locate bodies or attachments (e.g. outriggers, tool boxes) such that the above stated criteria are not violated then the vehicle must be retrofitted with front underride protection, which is available from the MAN spare parts organisation.

 

Responsibility for this lies with the body builder. MAN is not liable for any costs arising from the retrofitting of front underride protection to vehicles that were delivered as off-road vehicles.

 

Underride protection equipment may not be modified (e.g. by welding, drilling or modification of brackets).
Non-compliance voids type approval.

 

 

5.3    Side underride protection

 

“Lateral protection device(s) (are) designed to offer effective protection to unprotected road users against the risk of falling under the sides of the vehicle and atng caught under the wheels” (excerpt from ECE-R73). Trucks, tractor units and their trailers with a permissible gross weight of > 3.5 t must be fitted with side underride protection.

 

Exceptions applicable to the truck sector are as follows:

 

•    Semitrailer tractor units (not semitrailers)
•    Vehicles built for special purposes that are incompatible with the fitting of side underride protection.

 

The following apply in Germany:

 

•    The respective national approval authority can be applied to for certificates of exemption to cover transfer trips of chassis.
•    In this connection, “special vehicles” mainly means vehicles with side tipper. This only applies to vehicles with side tippers and a body inside length

     of less than 7,500 mm. Neither vehicles for combined transport nor off-road vehicles are exempt from the mandatory requirement for fitting

     side underride protection.

 

The corresponding national regulations must be observed when determining whether or not side underride protection has to be fitted.

 

Side underride protection for chassis can be delivered ex-works. Body builders who retrofit side underride
protection can procure MAN profiles, profile supports and components for assembly from the Spare-parts Service.

 

The company installing or modifying side underride protection is responsible for compliance with national regulations (regulated by Directive ECE-R73 01, in Germany by §32c StVZO (Road Traffic Licensing Regulations)). It is not permissible to attach brake, air or hydraulic pipes to side underride protection. There may be no sharp edges or burrs; the rounding-off radius for all parts cut to size by the body builder must be at least 2.5 mm; Rounded bolts and rivets may project by a maximum of 10 mm. If the vehicle is fitted with different tyres or different springs, the height of the SUP must be checked and, if necessary, corrected. If there are several components in a row (battery box, tool box ...) that serve as a form of SUP, a maximum distance of 25 mm is permissible but the rear component may not project laterally outwards above the front one.

 

If it is necessary for the body builder to modify MAN’s original profile support for the SUP, then the relationship between the span “I” and projection “a” shall apply as illustrated in the following diagram (Fig. 32-III). If, according to expert opinion, the permitted dimensions are exceeded then the body builder must arrange for strength testing to be carried out. The illustrations are only intended to clarify the dimensions for which the MAN side underride protection meets strength requirements.

 

Fig. 31-III:    Side underride protection on the TGS/TGX

 

 

Fig. 32-III:    Graph for ascertaining span and projection for the TGS/TGX

 

 

Both profiles (A and B) are used ex works for TGS/TGX vehicles in the exhaust-emission class Euro 6 and lower.

 

The profiles are shown in Fig. 33-III below.

 

Fig. 33a-III:    Version A                                       Fig. 33b-III:    Version B

 

 

 

 

5.4    Rear underride protection

 

Chassis of the TGS and TGX model ranges are delivered ex works with different variants of MAN’s rear underride protection. The respective variant is controlled by MAN in dependence on the parameters wheel configuration, build height, suspension type and wheelbase in combination with the factory-fitted body (swap body fitting), see Table 12-III. MAN underride protection devices are approved in accordance with Directive 70/221/EEC as last amended by 2006/20/EU.

 

Table 12-III:    Underride protection variants (for an explanation of the values see Fig. 34-III)

 

Item no. fitting

Version

w

X

Y

Z*

α

81.41660-8176

C2WB

191 mm

max. 348 mm

340 mm

max. 550 mm

56,3°

81.41660-8177

C1

199 mm

max. 332 mm

432 mm

max. 550 mm

33,8°

81.41660-8178

C2

291 mm

max. 348 mm

340 mm

max. 550 mm

56,3°

81.41660-8180

B1

249 mm

max. 318 mm

507 mm

max. 550 mm

33,8°

81.41660-8181

B2

366 mm

max. 339 mm

391 mm

max. 550 mm

56,3°

81.41660-8183

A1

277 mm

max. 305 mm

549 mm

max. 550 mm

33,8°

81.41660-8184

A2

408 mm

max. 330 mm

418 mm

max. 550 mm

56,3°

 

* maximum permissible distance as per Directive 70/221/EEC

 

The bodybuilder/converter must ensure and verify that the regulations have been adhered to because the dimensions are dependent upon the superstructure and can only be determined once the vehicle including the superstructure has been fully completed.

 

Fig. 34-III:    Dimensional specifications for underride protection

 

 

The following dimensions must be observed.

 

   w    =    horizontal distance from frame end to rear edge of underride protection

   y    =     vertical distance from frame lower edge to lower edge of underride protection

   x    =    horizontal distance from lower edge of underride protection to read edge of body

   z    =    vertical distance from lower edge of underride protection to the road surface for an unladen vehicle

   α    =    angle α depends upon the requirements for dimensions w and y.

 

Depending upon the chassis variant, a folding underride guard from Ringfeder VBG is available as optional equipment for vehicles fitted with an MAN low coupling system. Alternatively, folding underride protection for construction site vehicles is available from Meiller.

 

Underride-protection systems may never be modified (e.g. by welding or modifying the tube or angle α) because this will invalidate certification/type approval. This also applies to vehicles with a factory-fitted body!

 

If rear underride protection is retrofitted or refitted, e.g. after shortening the frame, the bodybuilder/modifier is responsible for fitting it in accordance with the regulations.

 

The following points must be observed:

 

•    For the bolted connections between the bracket and frame it is imperative that MAN Verbus-Ripp bolts with shaft are used

     (MAN 06.02813-4915, M14x1.5 10.9), tightening torque 200 Nm on the nut side (see Fig. 35a-III).
•    The bolts of the lower connection of the underride protection must be tightened with a torque of 330 Nm. (See Fig. 35b-III.)
•    Angle α of the underride protection may not be modified at a later time, otherwise registration becomes void.
•    Any modifications to underride protection must be certified by an officially approved inspector
     (e.g. an officially accredited expert in Germany).

 

Fig. 35a-III:    Bolted connection of underride protection           Fig. 35b-III:    Lower bolted connection, underride protection bracket

 

 

 

 

5.5    Fuel tanks

 

To the extent that space allows, fuel tanks may be relocated and additional tanks fitted. Where tanks of a greater volume are fitted, care must be taken to ensure that the wheel load remains as evenly distributed as possible. If necessary, they shall be fitted opposite each other, that is, on the left and right sides of the frame.

 

If larger or supplementary fuel tanks are fitted after the vehicle has been delivered from the manufacturer‘s factory then the additional tank volume becomes subject to the mineral oil excise duty applicable in the country into which it is atng imported upon crossing the border.

 

Only fuel that is carried in the so-called “standard tanks” (plus fuel carried in reserve fuel canisters up to a maximum quantity of 20 litres) is free of duty. Standard tanks are the fuel tanks fitted to the vehicle when it was delivered from the factory and not fuel tanks added at a later time by a body builder or workshop for example.

 

 

5.6    Coupling devices

 

In order to operate turntable trailers, rigid drawbar trailers or semitrailer tractors, a correspondingly designed coupling device (i.e. trailer coupling and final cross member / fifth-wheel pick-up plate and fifth-wheel coupling) is necessary.

 

Standardisation and legislation for the implementation of coupling devices are based on national conditions for registration, for example:

 

•    Article 43 of the German Road Traffic Licensing Regulations (StVZO) (safety standard),
•    Article 22a of the German Road Traffic Licensing Regulations (StVZO) (type approval),
•    BGV D29 (accident-prevention regulations of the Trade Association for Vehicle Operators)

 

and the calculation of the D value.

 

A comprehensive description of the final cross members available from MAN, the calculation of the D value and more detailed information can be found in the separate booklet entitled “Coupling devices TG”.

 

 

6.0    Engine and driveline

 

 

6.1    General

 

The task of the driveline is to provide the thrust and tractive forces necessary for propelling a vehicle subject to the effective driving resistances.

The driveline must fulfil the following functions.

 

•    Conversion (adjustment) of torque and engine speed
•    Compensation for different speeds of inner and outer wheels when cornering
•    Driving operation, forwards and in reverse
•    Operation of the engine at the optimum consumption and exhaust levels of its operating map
•    Driving of auxiliary consumers

 

Drive components are (see Fig. 36-III):

 

•    Engine and engine components
•    Gearbox and gearbox components
•    Axles and axle components
•    Transfer case

 

Fig. 36-III:    Example of an MAN driveline

 

 

1)    Engine
2)    Clutch
3)    Gearbox
4)    Propshafts
5)    Transfer case
6)    Axle with planetary gear

 

 

6.2    Engine variants

 

Depending on model range and emission class, MAN offers different engine variants.
TGS and TGX vehicle: six-cylinder diesel engines (R6) from the D20 common-rail or D26 common-rail families (= 1st - 3rd digits of the engine designation) are installed. A V8 common-rail engine from the D28 family supplements the TGX program.

 

Depending upon the rated power and rated torque they are in-line four-cylinder (R4) or in-line six cylinder (R6) or V8 engines.

The engines are available as Euro 3 (for some export markets), Euro 4, Euro 5, EEV and Euro 6.

 

In accordance with European regulations, the engines are equipped with exhaust-gas recirculation, on-board diagnosis including NOx control (torque reduction in the event of an NOx control fault) and exhaust-gas aftertreatment. The following tables list the different engine variants for the TG model ranges available together with the engine designations.

 

The following abbreviations are used.

 

EGR:             Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EEV:              Enhanced Environmentally friendly Vehicle
OBD:             On-Board-Diagnose
PM-Kat:        Particulate Matter
SCR:             Selective Catalytic Reduction with AdBlue as reducing agent

CRT:             Continuously Regenerating Trap

 

Table 13-III:   TGS/TGX engines/engine designations D20 / D26

 

                                                                                                                 

Vehicle
Designation

Emission
class

Power [kW]
at [rpm]

OBD Stage

EGR

Exhaust-gas
aftertreatment

Max. torque
[Nm] / at [rpm]

Engine
type

Engine
Designation

xx.360

Euro 3

265 kW / 1.900

Without OBD

With EGR

Without

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

R6

D2066LF48

xx.400

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF49

xx.440

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF50

xx.480

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.400 rpm

D2676LF31

xx.320

Euro 4

235 kW / 1.900

OBD 1 + NOx control

PM-Kat

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF39

xx.360

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF38

xx.400

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF37

xx.440

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF36

xx.480

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.300 rpm

D2676LF05

xx.320

235 kW / 1.900

Without EGR

SCR

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF65

xx.360

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF64

xx.400

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF63

xx.440

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF62

xx.480

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.300 rpm

D2676LF20

xx.540

397 kW / 1.900

2.500 at 1.050 - 1.350 rpm

D2676LF19

xx.320*

235 kW / 1.900

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF72

xx.360*

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF71

xx.400*

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF70

xx.440*

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF69

xx.480*

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.400 rpm

D2676LF33

xx.540*

397 kW / 1.900

2.500 at 1.050 - 1.350 rpm

D2676LF32

xx.320

Euro 5

235 kW / 1.900

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF28

xx.360

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF27

xx.400

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF26

xx.440

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF25

xx.480

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.300 rpm

D2676LF14

xx.540

397 kW / 1.900

2.500 at 1.050 - 1.350 rpm

D2676LF13

xx.320*

235 kW / 1.900

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF20

xx.360*

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF19

xx.400*

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF18

xx.440*

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF17

xx.480*

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.400 rpm

D2676LF16

xx.540*

397 kW / 1.900

2.500 at 1.050 - 1.350 rpm

D2676LF15

xx.320

Euro5

235 kW / 1.900

OBD 2 + NOx control

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF43

xx.360

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF42

xx.400

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF41

xx.440

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF40

xx.480

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.400 rpm

D2676LF07

xx.540

397 kW / 1.900

2.500 at 1.050 - 1.350 rpm

D2676LF06

xx.320*

235 kW / 1.900

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF47

xx.360*

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF46

xx.400*

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF45

xx.440*

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF44

xx.480*

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.400 rpm

D2676LF09

xx.540*

397 kW / 1.900

2.500 at 1.050 - 1.350 rpm

D2676LF08

xx.320

235 kW / 1.900

With EGR

Oxi-Kat

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF53**

xx.360

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF52**

xx.400

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF51**

xx.440

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 950 - 1.400 rpm

D2676LF22**

xx.480

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 950 - 1.400 rpm

D2676LF21**

xx.320

EEV

235 kW / 1.900

Without EGR

SCR

1.600 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF60

xx.360

265 kW / 1.900

1.800 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF59

xx.400

294 kW / 1.900

1.900 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF58

xx.440

324 kW / 1.900

2.100 at 1.000 - 1.400 rpm

D2066LF57

xx.480

353 kW / 1.900

2.300 at 1.050 - 1.400 rpm

D2676LF18

xx.540

397 kW / 1.900

2.500 at 1.050 - 1.350 rpm

D2676LF17

xx.320

Euro 6

235 kW / 1800

OBD 2 + NOx control

With EGR

SCR + CRT

1600 at 930 - 1400 rpm

R6

D2066LF68

xx.360

265 kW / 1800

1800 at 930 - 1400 rpm

D2066LF67

xx.400

294 kW / 1800

1900 at 930 - 1400 rpm

D2066LF61

xx.440

324 kW / 1800

2100 at 930 - 1400 rpm

D2676LF26

xx.480

353 kW / 1800

2300 at 930 - 1400 rpm

D2676LF25

* = engines with OBD 1b or OBD 2 without torque reduction (DMR) in the event of an NOx fault Only applies to engines for fire services, rescue services and military vehicles in accordance with Annex I.6558 of Directive 2005/55/EC as amended in 2006/81/EC

** = engines for UK and Ireland only

 

Table 14-III:    TGX engines/engine designations D28 V8

 

Vehicle
Designation

Emission
class

Power [kW]
at [rpm]

OBD Stage

EGR

Exhaust-gas
aftertreatment

Max. torque
[Nm] / at [rpm]

Engine
type

Engine
Designation

xx.680

Euro 5

500 kW / 1,800

OBD 1 + NOx control

Without EGR

SCR

3,000 at 1,100 - 1,500 rpm

V8

D2868LF02

xx.680

500 kW / 1,900

2,700 at 1,000 - 1,700 rpm

D2868LF03

xx.680*

500 kW / 1,900

OBD 2 + NOx control

2,700 at 1,000 - 1,700 rpm

D2868LF04

xx.680

500 kW / 1,900

2,700 at 1,000 - 1,700 rpm

D2868LF06

xx.680*

500 kW / 1,900

2,700 at 1,000 - 1,700 rpm

D2868LF07

xx.680

EEV

500 kW / 1,800

3,000 at 1,100 - 1,500 rpm

D2868LF05

* = engines with OBD 1b or OBD 2 without torque reduction (DMR) in the event of an NOx fault Only applies to engines for fire services, rescue services and military vehicles in accordance with Annex I.6558 of Directive 2005/55/EC as amended in 2006/81/EC

 

Table 15-III:    TGS-WW engines/engine designations D20 / D26

 

Vehicle
Designation

Emission
class

Power [kW]
at [rpm]

OBD Stage

EGR

Exhaust-gas
aftertreatment

Max. torque
[Nm] / at [rpm]

Engine
type

Engine
Designation

xx.360

Euro 3

265 kW / 1,900

without OBD

With EGR

without

1,800 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

6-cylinder inline

D2066LF48

xx.400

294 kW / 1,900

1,900 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF49

xx.440

324 kW / 1,900

2,100 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF50

xx.480

353 kW / 1,900

2,300 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2676LF02

xx.480

353 kW / 1,900

2,300 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2676LF31

xx.320

Euro 4

235 kW / 1,900

OBD 1

PM-Kat

1,600 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF35

xx.360

265 kW / 1,900

1,800 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF33

xx.400

294 kW / 1,900

1,900 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF32

xx.440

324 kW / 1,900

2,100 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF31

xx.480

353 kW / 1,900

2,300 at 1,050 - 1,300 rpm

D2676LF01

xx.320

235 kW / 1,900

OBD 1 + NOx control

1,600 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF39

xx.360

265 kW / 1,900

1,800 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF38

xx.400

294 kW / 1,900

1,900 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF37

xx.440

324 kW / 1,900

2,100 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF36

xx.480

353 kW / 1,900

2,300 at 1,050 - 1,300 rpm

D2676LF05

xx.320

235 kW / 1,900

Without EGR

SCR

1,600 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF65

xx.360

265 kW / 1,900

1,800 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF64

xx.400

294 kW / 1,900

1,900 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF63

xx.440

324 kW / 1,900

2,100 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF62

xx.480

353 kW / 1,900

2,300 at 1,050 - 1,400 rpm

D2676LF20

xx.540

397 kW / 1,900

2,500 at 1,050 - 1,350 rpm

D2676LF19

xx.320*

235 kW / 1,900

1,600 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF72

xx.360*

265 kW / 1,900

1,800 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF71

xx.400*

294 kW / 1,900

1,900 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF70

xx.440*

324 kW / 1,900

2,100 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2066LF69

xx.480*

353 kW / 1,900

2,300 at 1,050 - 1,400 rpm

D2676LF33

xx.540*

397 kW / 1,900

2,500 at 1,050 - 1,350 rpm

D2676LF32

* = engines with OBD 1b or OBD 2 without torque reduction (DMR) in the event of an NOx fault Only applies to engines for fire services, rescue services and military vehicles in accordance with Annex I.6558 of Directive 2005/55/EC as amended in 2006/81/EC

 

 

Table 16-III:    Engine for 27X and 28X models engine designation D26 (not EC and without torque reduction)

 

Vehicle designation

Emission class

Power [kW] at [rpm]:

OBD Stage

EGR

Exhaust-gas aftertreatment

Max. torque [Nm] at [rpm]

Engine type

Engine
Designation

xx.440

Conama P6

324 kW / 1,900

without OBD

With EGR

Oxidising catalytic converter

2,100 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

6-cylinder inline

D2676LF10

xx.480*

Conama P7

353 kW / 1,900

ODB 2 (Brazil)

Without EGR

SCR

2,400 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2676LF23

xx.400*

294 kW / 1,900

2,000 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2676LF24

xx.440*

324 kW / 1,900

2,200 at 1,000 - 1,400 rpm

D2676LF28

* = engines with OBD 2 (Brazil) without torque reduction (DMR) in the event of an NOx fault

The Brazilian emission class Conama P6 is similar to Euro IV without OBD. Conama P7 is similar to Euro V with OBD, similar to the European OBD2.

 

 

 

 

6.3    Engine environment

 

 

6.3.1    Modifications to the engine

 

MAN does not permit any modifications to the engine or its components. Non-compliance voids type approval and warranty.

 

 

6.3.2    Modifications to the air-intake system

 

In general, modifications to the air-intake system are to be avoided. Various factory options are available for the TGS/TGX and body builders should check to see if these can be used. Information on availability for the corresponding vehicle can be obtained from your closest MAN sales branch.

 

If it is still not possible to avoid making modifications the following requirements must be met:

 

•    The intake of air must not be inhibited in any way.
•    The negative pressure in the intake branch must not be allowed to vary.
•    When modifying the intake system it must be ensured that all statutory regulations relevant to noise and emissions are fulfilled.
•    All regulations pertaining to the components in question issued by professional associations or similar facilities must also be fulfilled

     (e.g. surface temperature in the vicinity of handles/grips).
•    In the case of modified intake systems, MAN cannot
   -    guarantee compliance with these and other regulations. Responsibility for this remains with the company performing the modification.

        This also applies to regulations pertaining to on-board diagnosis (OBD).
   -    provide any information about changes in fuel consumption or noise characteristics; in some circumstances, a new noise emission approval will be required.         Components that have an effect on the vehicles acoustics (e.g. nozzles in the air filter) not be modified. Non-compliance with
        noise limits voids type approval!

 

For vehicles up to and including the Euro 5 exhaust standard, the following apply in addition to the general specifications:

 

•    Never change the shape or area of pipework cross-sections.
•    Avoid sharp bends in the pipe; mitre cuts are not permitted.
•    Do not modify air filters.
•    The service life of the air filter may be shortened when modifications are made to the air-intake system.
•    Only use approved air filters.
•    Changes to the installation location of the humidity sensor in the air-filter housing are not allowed.
•    The design of mountings and supports and the basic installation position of components must not be changed.
•    The air-intake must be protected against drawing in warmed air (e.g. heat dissipated by the engine in the vicinity of the wheel housings or

     the exhaust silencer). A suitable location for the air intake must be chosen such that the intake air is not warmed by more than 5°C

     (difference between the ambient air temperature and the temperature at the turbocharger inlet). If the intake air temperature is too high there is
     a risk that the exhaust emission limits will be exceeded. Non-compliance with emission limits voids type approval!
•    In order to avoid drawing in burning cigarette ends or similar, a so-called cigarette mesh must be fitted directly over the air intake in the same fashion

     as the mesh installed on production vehicles (non-flammable material, mesh size SW6, area of the open cross-section at least that of the intake

     air scoop on the air filter). There is a risk of vehicle fire if this requirement is not observed! MAN can provide no information on
     the effectiveness of the measure used, responsibility lies with the company performing the modification.

•    The air intake must be positioned such that there is a low level of dust and spray ingestion.
•    Sufficient dewatering using water separation systems and unobstructed dust discharge from the filter housing and the unfiltered side must be ensured

     to prevent damage to the engine.
•    Pipework on the filtered-air side must be selected to ensure that it is absolutely sealed from the unfiltered side. The inside of the air intake pipes must

     be smooth – no particles or similar may come loose from the sides. It is imperative that the air intake pipe cannot slip out at the sealed joints.

     Suitable brackets must therefore be fitted.
•    The partial-vacuum sensor shall be positioned in a straight section of the pipe at the shortest possible distance from the turbocharger.

     It is the responsibility of the company carrying out the modification to ensure the sensor reads correctly.

     Important: Risk of engine damage if the sensor underreads!
•    All air-intake pipes must be capable of resisting vacuum pressures of 100 mbar and temperatures of at least 80°C (peaks of 100°C).

     Flexible tubing (e.g. hoses) is not permitted.

 

For vehicles up to and including Euro 6, the following apply in addition to the requirements of the lower exhaust-gas standards:

 

•    Modifications to the air-intake system may only be undertaken following written request and approval by MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).
•    Changes to the installation location, position and alignment of sensors in the air-intake system are not allowed.
•    If the air-compressor intake line is re-routed, it must be ensured that the cross-sections are adequately dimensioned. The line must have

     a vacuum stability of at least 250 mbar and a temperature stability range of between -40°C and +120°C.
•    Independent retrofitting or removing of the safety elements (for difficult operating conditions) leads to non-compliance with the emission limit values.

     Retrofitting may only be carried out by MAN workshops. Under certain circumstances the vehicle will require parameterisation.

 

 

6.3.3    Modifications to the engine cooling system

 

Engine cooling systems are harmonised with the respective engines and the following must therefore be observed:

 

•    Components of the factory-fitted cooling system (radiator, grille, air ducts, coolant circuit) may not be modified.
•    Exceptions only with approval from MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).
•    Any modification of the radiator that reduces the size of the cooling surface cannot be approved.
•    The cooling system may only be filled using coolants approved by MAN in accordance with the information given in the database of operating fluids.
•    Materials that contain copper may not be used in the cooling circuit.

 

Under the following conditions, a radiator with modified performance may be required:

 

•    Operation primarily under stationary conditions
•    Operation in climatically unfavourable zones (countries with hot climates)
•    Operation in areas where it can be expected that the cooling performance can be reduced e.g. due to high dust level

 

The nearest MAN sales center can provide information on delivery options for the respective vehicle; for retrofitting, contact the nearest MAN service outlet or MAN authorised workshop.When fitting a third-party radiator, it is mandatory to follow the mechanical installation requirements set down in the installation guidelines for built-in engines. These guidelines can be requested at MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

 

 

 

6.3.4    Modifications to engine encapsulation, noise insulation

 

Interference with and changes to engine capsulation in place ex works are not permitted. If a vehicle comes ready defined as “low-noise” it will lose its status as a result of subsequent changes or retrofits. The company that has carried out the modification will then be responsible for re-obtaining the previous status.

 

 

6.3.5    Compressed-air supply

 

The compressed-air system includes components such as:

 

•    Air compressor
•    Compressed-air dryer
•    Compressed-air container
•    External compressed-air connections

 

The compressed-air circuit supplies amongst others the brake circuit, cab suspension, running-gear suspension and other consumers that require pressurisation with compressed air in order to operate.

 

 

6.3.5.1    Basic principles

 

Improperly executed work on the compressed-air system can impair the function of the brake system.
This can lead to the failure of components or parts relevant to safety.

 

 

6.3.5.2    Routing lines

 

Principles of laying lines:

 

•    Do not lay lines loose, use existing means of attachment and/or conduits.
•    Do not heat plastic pipes to install them, even if they are to be laid in a curve.
•    When attaching PA pipes make sure they cannot become twisted.
•    Fit a tube clip or, in the case of a cluster of pipes, a cable tie at the beginning and end in each case.
•    Attach corrugated wiring harness pipes to plastic consoles in the frame and in the engine area to prepared
     cable routes using cable ties or clips.
•    Never attach more than one line to the same hose clip.
•    Only polyamide pipes as per DIN74324 Part 1 or MAN standard M3230 Part 1 (extension of DIN74324 Part 1) may be employed

     (MAN portal for technical documentation:   http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com, registration required).
•    The cross-section of lines may not be changed.
•    Add 1% to the length of the polyamide pipe (corresponding to 10 mm for each metre), because plastic pipes
     contract in the cold and the vehicles must be capable of working at temperatures down to -40°C.
•    Do not heat pipes to lay them.
•    When cutting plastic pipes to length, use plastic pipe cutters because sawing them creates ridges on the cut faces and chippings can get into the pipe.
•    PA pipes may rest on the edges of a frame or in frame openings. A minimal amount of flattening on the PA
     pipe at the points of contact is tolerated (maximum depth 0.3 mm). However, notched abrasions are not permitted.

•    PA lines may touch one another. There should be minimal flattening at the points where they touch one another.
•    PA lines can be bundled together with a cable tie but in parallel and must not cross each other. PA and corrugated pipes should only be bundled

      together with pipes of the same type. The restriction in movement caused by the pipes becoming stiffer when bundled together must be taken into account.
•    Covering frame edges with a cut open corrugated pipe causes damage; the PA pipe is worn at the point where it contacts the corrugated pipe.
•    Points of contact between the compressed-air line (Position 1, Fig. 37-III) and edges of the frame can be protected with a protective spiral

     (Position 2, Fig. 37-III). Such a protective spiral must grip the pipe it is guarding tightly and fully in its windings. (Exception: Polyamide pipes ≤ 6 mm.)

 

Fig. 37-III:    Protective spiral on PA pipe

 

 

1)    Compressed-air line
2)    Protective spiral

 

•    Do not let PA pipes/corrugated pipes come into contact with aluminium alloys (e.g. aluminium tank, fuel filter housing).

      Aluminium alloys are subject to mechanical wear (fire risk).
•    Pipes that cross over and pulsate (e.g. for fuel) must not be joined by a cable tie where they cross (risk of chafing).
•    Do not fix leads rigidly to injection lines and steel fuel feeding pipes for the flame starting system (risk of chafing, fire risk).
•    Accompanying central lubricating cables and ABS sensor cables may only be attached to air hoses if a rubber spacer is fitted.
•    Do not attach anything to coolant hoses and hydraulic hoses (e.g. steering) by cable ties (risk of chafing).
•    Under no circumstances bundle starter cables together with lines carrying fuel or oil because it is a must that the cable from the plus terminal does not chafe.
•    Effects of heat: Pay attention to the possibility of heat build-up in encapsulated areas. Resting leads against heat shields is not permitted

     (minimum distance from heat shields ≥ 100 mm, from the exhaust ≥ 200 mm).
•    Metal leads are prestrengthened and may not be bent or fitted such that they can bend by themselves during operation.

     

If subassemblies/components are seated to move in relation to one another, the following basic rules must be followed when routing leads:

 

•    A lead must be able to follow the movement of a subassembly without hindrance; ensure that there is sufficient spacing between moving parts      (rebound/compression, steering angle, tilting of cab). Lines must not be stretched.
•    Precisely define the respective beginning and end of the movement as a fixed clamping point.
     The polyamide pipe or corrugated tube is gripped tightly at the clamping point using the widest cable tie possible or a clip suitable for the diameter of the pipe.
•    If polyamide pipes and corrugated tubes are laid at the same junction, the stiffer polyamide pipe is laid first.
     The softer corrugated tube is then attached to the polyamide pipe.
•    A line tolerates movement at right angles to the direction in which it is laid, so ensure sufficient spacing between the clamping points

      (rule of thumb: spacing of clamping points ≥ 5 x amplitude of movement to be sustained).
•    Large amplitude of movement is best withstood by laying a pipe U-shaped and allowing movement along the arms of the U.

 

Rule of thumb for minimum length of slack loop:

Minimum length of slack loop = ½ ● amplitude of movement ● minimum radius ● π

 

•    Observe the following minimum radii for PA pipes (define the respective start and end of the movement precisely as the fixed clamping point).

 

Table 17-III:    Minimum radius for PA pipes

 

Nominal diameter Ø [ mm ]

4

6

9

12

14

16

Radius [ mm ]

20

30

40

60

80

95

 

•    Use plastic clips to secure the lines and comply with the maximum clip spacing stated in Table 18-III.

 

Table 18-III:    Maximum space between clips used to secure pipes in relation to pipe size

 

Pipe size

4x1

6x1

8x1

9x1,5

11x1,5

12x1,5

14x2

14x2,5

16x2

Clamp spacing [mm]

500

500

600

600

700

700

800

800

800

 

 

 

6.3.5.3    Plug-in connectors

 

For brake/air lines, only the following are permitted: Voss 232 (MAN standard M3298) and Voss 230 (for small pipes NG6 and special connectors such as double mandrel, MAN standard M3061-2). The standard referred to contains detailed instructions for all cases when fitting pneumatic lines and subassemblies.
Body builders can obtain the MAN works standards cited at   http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com (registration required).

 

The 232 system has two detent stages. If the plug element has only been inserted as far as the first detent,
the System 232 connection leaks deliberately; incorrect plug element engagement can be identified immediately by the noise that occurs.

 

•    The system must be relieved of pressure to slacken the union screw.
•    After the connection between the connector and the union screw is separated, the union screw must be renewed because the retaining element is

     destroyed by undoing the connection.
•    That is why the union screw must be slackened when detaching a line from a subassembly. The plastic pipe with the connector, union screw and

      retaining element form a re-usable unit. Only the O-ring that seals the thread (see Fig. 38-III) has to be renewed (grease the round sealing ring and

     clean the union screw when installing).
•    The plug-connector unit described above is to be screwed into the assembly hand-tight, then finally tightened to 12 ±2 Nm in metal and plastic

      (MAN standard: M3021,   http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com(registration required).

 

Fig. 38-III:    oss system 232, functional principle

 

 

1)    Plug connector fully engaged (2nd detent)
2)    Plug
3)    Plug connector not fully engaged (1st detent) > loss of air
4)    Union screw
5)    Brake unit
6)    Air escapes if plug connector is not fully engaged
7)    Retaining element
8)    Round sealing ring for sealing the plug
9)    Round sealing ring for sealing the thread
10)  Round sealing ring for pre-tensioning and preventing ingress of dirt

 

 

 

6.3.5.4    Connecting auxiliary consumers

 

All of the compressed-air system pipework uses Voss Systems 232 and 230 (for small pipes NG6 and special connectors, e.g. double mandrel). Only use of the original system components is permitted when working on the chassis.
Air loads on the body may only be connected to the compressed air system via the circuit for additional loads.
A dedicated overflow valve must be fitted for each additional consumer with a pneumatic connection > NG6 (6x1 mm).

 

Additional loads may not be connected:

 

•    to the service and parking brake circuits or trailer control,
•    to the test connections,
•    directly to the four-circuit protection valve.

 

MAN uses a distribution rail on the solenoid-valve block to connect its own air-consumers. This is installed on the cross member in the frame bend and in a few exceptional cases on the side, on the cross-member junction plate or in the frame side member on the left in the direction of travel (for vehicles with wheel configurations 8x6 and 8x8).

 

Body builders have the following connection options.

 

The connections on the distribution rail (Fig. 39-III) are occupied by lines, depending on the equipment fitted.
When the vehicle leaves the factory, connections 52, 53, 54, 58 und 59 may be occupied to supply vehicle functions. It can therefore not be guaranteed that it will be possible to connect additional auxiliary consumers with VOSS System 232 NG8 to any one of these connections. In such cases, the overflow valve to be fitted separately by the bodybuilder must be connected using Voss plug L-SN12-KN12-KN12 (MAN part no. 81.98183-6101). To this end, the supply line must be disconnected from the distribution rail. The other option is connection to an overflow and check valve (overflow pressure 7,3°-0,3 bar) for body-mounted auxiliary consumers which can be ordered ex works (MAN no. 81.52110.6049).

 

Fig. 39-III:    Connecting auxiliary consumers

 

Front view                                             Rear view

 

 

 

6.3.5.5    Loss of compressed-air pressure

 

Compressed-air systems cannot achieve one hundred percent efficiency and slight leakage is often unavoidable despite the most careful installation work. So the question is how much loss of air pressure is unavoidable, and when does the loss become too high. In simple terms, any loss of air pressure is to be avoided that would result in not being able to drive a vehicle immediately after starting it within 12 hours of shutting it down/parking it. Based on this there are two different methods of determining whether air loss is unavoidable or not:

 

•    Within 12 hours of the system being charged to its cut-off pressure, the pressure must not be below < 6 bar in any circuit.

     The check must be made with depressurised spring-loaded brake release units, in other words with the parking brake applied.
•    The pressure in the tested circuit must not have fallen by more than 2 % within ten minutes of charging the system to its cut-off pressure.

 

If the air loss is greater than described here, an unacceptable leak is present and must be eliminated.

 

 

 

6.4    Exhaust system

 

 

6.4.1    Modifications to the exhaust routing

 

In general, modifications to the exhaust system are to be avoided. Various factory options are available for
the TGS/TGS and body builders must check to see if these can be used. Information on availability for the corresponding vehicle can be obtained from your closest MAN sales branch.

 

If it is still not possible to avoid making modifications the following requirements must be met:

 

•    The outflow of exhaust gases must not be inhibited in any way.
•    The backpressure in the exhaust must not be allowed to vary.
•    All statutory regulations relevant to noise and emissions must be fulfilled.
•    When modifications are made to the exhaust system and routing, care must be taken to ensure that the exhaust-gas stream is not directed at any part

     of the vehicle. The direction of the exhaust outlet must point away from the vehicle (observe regulations in the respective country - in Germany,

     these are the Road Traffic Licensing Regulations (StVZO)).
•    All regulations pertaining to the components in question issued by professional associations or similar bodies must also be fulfilled

     (e.g. surface temperature in the vicinity of handles/grips)
•    In the case of modified exhaust systems, MAN cannot
   -    guarantee compliance with the above-mentioned and other regulations. Responsibility for this remains with the company performing the modification.

        This also applies to regulations pertaining to on-board diagnosis systems (OBD).
   -    provide any information about changes in fuel consumption or noise characteristics. In some circumstances, new noise-emission approval will be required.        Components that have an effect on acoustics may not be modified. Non-compliance with noise limits voids type approval!
   -    make any statement of compliance about prescribed exhaust-gas limits. An expertise on emissions may be necessary.

        Non-compliance with emission limits voids type approval!

 

Depending on the emission class, modifications to the exhaust system are possible. In this regard, the following instructions must be observed.

 

For vehicles up to and including the Euro 4 exhaust standard, the following apply in addition to the general specifications:

 

•    When relocating the exhaust silencer it must be ensured that the original MAN bracket is re-used and that the basic installation position of

     components is unchanged. (See Fig. 40-III: Exhaust-silencer bracket)
•    The location of the temperature and the NOx sensors (with OBD) on the exhaust silencer may not be changed.
•    Modifications to the factory-fitted MAN cable harness to the sensors are not permitted. If other cable harness lengths are required,

     order Genuine MAN cable harnesses from the MAN Spare-parts Service.
•    For EMC reasons, CAN cables may not be untwisted.
•    Conversion work or modifications to the exhaust-gas routing from the exhaust manifold to the metal hose
     (the flexible metal pipe between parts attached to the body and those attached to the frame) are not permitted.
•    No blowing-out of cargo (e.g. bitumen) using exhaust gas - danger of damage to the exhaust system and engine.
•    Never change the shape or area of pipework cross-sections. The original type of material must be used for pipes.
•     Do not modify silencers (including the silencer housing): this voids type approval.
•    Bending radii must be at least twice the pipe diameter; creases are not allowed.
•    Only continuous bends are permitted, i.e. no mitre cuts.
•    The function of components relevant to OBD may not be impaired. Manipulation of components relevant to OBD voids type approval!

•    The connection of the pressure-sensor line on the silencer must always face the top, the following steel pipe must be installed so that it rises

     continuously to connect with the sensor and it must have a minimum length of 300 mm and a maximum length of 400 mm (including the flexible section).

     The measurement line must be made from M01-942-X6CrNiTi1810-K3-8x1 D4-T3. In general, the installation position of the pressure sensor must

      be retained (connection at bottom).
•    Heat-sensitive components (e.g. pipes, spare wheels) must be fitted at least > 200 mm away from hot parts of the exhaust system; if heat shields

     are fitted, this clearance may be reduced to ≥ 100 mm.

 

Fig. 40-III:    Exhaust-silencer bracket

 

 

1)    Temperature sensor
2)    Bracket
3)    M etal hose

 

For vehicles up to and including Euro 5, the following apply in addition to the requirements of the lower exhaust standards:

 

•    Extension of the exhaust routing by 1000 mm is permissible from the metal pipe to the exhaust silencer without fitting high temperature insulation.
•    Extension of the exhaust routing by > 1000 mm to max. 2000 mm is permissible from the metal pipe to the exhaust silencer if suitable high

     temperature insulation is fitted.

 

Fig. 41-III:     Exhaust-gas tract from mixer to metal hose

 

 

1)    Metal hose
2)    Mixer
3)    Injection nozzle
4)    Dosing modul

 

•    Only austenitic stainless steels may be used for manufacturing exhaust system piping.
     Reason: if the otherwise commonly-used ferritic steels are used, the ammonia in the exhaust tract (reaction product from AdBlue) will cause corrosion.

•    Stainless steel pipes must be welded using inert gas shielded arc welding (observe the steel manufacturer’s instructions) with the work carried out

     by qualified and authorised personnel.

 

Fig. 42-III:    Position of the NOx sensor (only OBD with NOx control, statutory requirement with effect from 10/2007) on exhaust silencer

 

 

1)    NOx-sensor

2)    Exhaust silencer
3)    Temperature sensor

 

Table 19-III:    Overview of the austenitic stainless steels as per DIN 17440 to be employed

 

Werkstoffe:

 

Designation

Material number

X 5 CrNi 18 10

1.4301

X 2 CrNi 19 11

1.4306

X 2 CrNiN 18 10

1.4311

X 6 CrNiTi 18 10

1.4541

X 6 CrNiNb 18 10

1.4550

X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2

1.4401

X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2

1.4404

X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2

1.4571

X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 3

1.4429

X 2 CrNiMo 18 14 3

1.4435

X 5 CrNiMo 17 13 3

1.4436

X 2 CrNiMoN 17 13 5

1.4439

 

 

For vehicles up to and including Euro 6, the following apply in addition to the requirements of the lower exhaust standards:

 

Due to the fact that exhaust-gas aftertreatment sensing is highly sensitive, all work must be carried out with the greatest care. The instructions in this section and in all other relevant sections must be strictly adhered to.

 

•    When the exhaust silencer is relocated, the factory-fitted fastening must be retained, if necessary adapted
     (see Fig. 43-III: Exhaust silencer on right side with separate bracket for cross strut)
•    When the exhaust silencer is relocated to the frame bend, it must be fitted parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle (e.g. by means of shims).
•    If the silencer is moved to a location reinforced by a cross member, the cross strut on the silencer can be dispensed with.
•    If only the AdBlue tank is relocated, a separate bracket may be necessary for the silencer cross strut
     (obtainable from MAN Spare-parts Service).

 

Fig. 43-III:    Exhaust silencer on right side with separate bracket for cross strut

 

 

1)    Bracket for cross strut
2)    Cross strut
3)    Exhaust silencer

 

The exhaust pipe may be lengthened in the section between the flexible metal hose and the silencer (see Fig. 44-III: Exhaust silencer relocated towards rear).

 

Fig. 44-III:    Exhaust silencer relocated towards rear

 

 

1)    Exhaust pipe

 

In this regard, the exhaust pipe between the flexible metal hose and the silencer may not exceed the following lengths (neutral axis), see Fig. 45-III: Neutral axis).

 

•    TGS/TGX: 3200 mm

 

Fig. 45-III:    Neutral axis

 

 

1)    Neutral axis

 

When the exhaust pipe is extended, a flexible pipe (MAN part no. 81.15210.5017) must be installed between the exhaust pipe and the silencer. A supplementary attachment point must be provided at the end of the extended pipe. In the case of vehicles with a short connection elbow (see Fig. 46-III: Exhaust silencer with short connection elbow) to the silencer, no supplementary bracket is necessary. In the case of vehicles with a long connection elbow (see Fig. 47-III: Exhaust silencer with long connection elbow) to the silencer, the factory-fitted bracket is to be retained.

 

Fig. 46-III:    Exhaust silencer with short connection elbow

 

 

1)    Short connection elbow

 

Fig. 47-III:    Exhaust silencer with long connection elbow

 

 

1)    Long connection elbow
2)    Bracket

 

In order to ensure that the exhaust system is leaktight, the following instructions must be adhered to.

 

•    The connections at the ends of the exhaust pipe must be retained.
•    In order to avoid welding distortion to the exhaust-pipe connections, a distance of approx. 100 mm between the connection and the joint must be maintained.
•    Joints in the area of bends are not permitted.
•    Joints in the area of changes to the cross-section are not permitted.
•    Exhaust seals are not suitable for re-use. The seals must be replaced with new ones whenever the exhaust pipe is disassembled. (TGS/X: 81.15901.0042).
•    Exhaust-pipe clamps may not be bent open.

 

Fig. 48-III:    Exhaust-pipe extension

 

 

1)    Standard exhaust pipe
2)    Exhaust-pipe connection - must be retained
3)    Section of pipe for exhaust-pipe extension
4)    Exhaust-pipe connection - must be retained

 

The factory-fitted exhaust system employs stainless steel, material no. 1.4301. Only austenitic stainless steels may be used for exhaust-system piping

(see Table 18-III).

 

Reason: if the otherwise commonly-used ferritic steels are used, the ammonia in the exhaust tract (reaction product from AdBlue) will cause corrosion.

 

Stainless steel pipes must be welded using inert gas shielded arc welding (observe the steel manufacturer’s instructions) with the work carried out by qualified and authorised personnel.

 

The exhaust pipe must be completely insulated up to the silencer. The insulation consists of a fibreglass needle mat and stainless-steel foil, which have to meet the following requirements.

 

•    Fibreglass needle mat
   -    Type of glass: 100 % E-glass
   -    Temperature resistance: up to 600 degrees
   -    Non-flammable (DIN 4102)
   -    Weight: 1500 g/m² (ISO 3374)
   -    Thickness: 10 mm (DIN EN ISO 5084, test area= 25 cm², test pressure = 10 g/cm²)

   -    Width: 1000 mm (DIN EN 1773)

•    Macrostructured nubbed steel (“NOSTAL”)
   -    Stainless steel 1.4301
   -    Material thickness 0.3 mm
   -    Structure thickness 1.5 mm

 

Fig. 49-III:    Exhaust pipe with insulation

 

 

1)    Exhaust pipe

2)    Fibreglass needle mat

3)    Macrostructured nubbed steel

 

Damage to the exhaust-pipe insulation is to be avoided In the event of major damage, it may be necessary to replace the exhaust pipe.

 

Notes:

 

•    Sensors and measuring instruments in the silencer may not be modified.

•    When the exhaust silencer has been relocated it must be ensured that no units are warmed by exhaust gas and that exhaust gas is not discharged

     in the direction of any units.

•    When relocating the exhaust silencer it is necessary to adapt the piping and cable harnesses (see Section 6.4.2 “Modifications to the AdBlue system”).

 

Bodies must be built in such a manner that the service apertures on the exhaust silencer are accessible. It must be possible to remove and replace the filter element.

 

 

6.4.2    AdBlue system

 

In the TGS and TGX model ranges, AdBlue is employed for exhaust-gas aftertreatment for the first time from the Euro 5 exhaust-emission class on. The main components of the system for Euro 5 vehicles are the AdBlue tank and the combined supply and metering module (see Fig. 50-III: Schematic structure of the AdBlue system in Euro 5 vehicles). In Euro 6 vehicles, the supply and metering modules form a single unit - the combined supply and metering module (see Fig. 51-III: Schematic structure of the AdBlue system in Euro 6 vehicles).

 

The specifications applying to Euro 5 vehicles apply analogously to TGS-WW vehicles with Euro 4 SCR and Conama P7.

 

 

6.4.2.1    Basic principles and structure of the AdBlue system

 

AdBlue from the supply and metering module is sprayed into the exhaust silencer by means of an injection nozzle. The AdBlue reacts with the exhaust gases, reducing the amount of pollutants they contain.

 

Fig. 50-III:    Schematic structure of the AdBlue system in Euro 5 vehicles

 

 

Fig. 51-III:    Schematic structure of the AdBlue system in Euro 6 vehicles

 

 

The components of the AdBlue system are connected to one another by a line set. This line set contains AdBlue lines as well as heating-water lines. The lines are partly surrounded with insulation to protect those lines carrying AdBlue from the cold. In addition, warm coolant from the engine is tapped to the heating-water lines so that the system remains operational even at low temperatures (see Fig. 52-III: Schematic diagram of line routing in Euro 6 AdBlue system).

 

Fig. 52-III:    Schematic diagram of line routing in Euro 6 AdBlue system

 

 

1)    AdBlue supply module
2)    AdBlue supply line from AdBlue tank to supply module
3)    Insulation of line set
4)    AdBlue return line from supply module to AdBlue tank
5)    AdBlue tank
6)    Heating-water supply line from water shut-off valve to AdBlue tank
7)    Water shut-off valve near AdBlue tank
8)    Heating-water supply line from cab heating connection to water shut-off valve
9)    Heating-water return line from AdBlue tank to engine
10)   Point of separation at which it is permissible to separate the heating-water line
11)   Exhaust silencer
12)   Metering line from supply module to Exhaust silencer
13)   Insulation of line set
14)   Compressed-air line
15)   Point of separation in compressed-air line

 

Notes on the AdBlue system

 

AdBlue (DIN 70070) is the trade name for an aqueous, synthetically manufactured 32.5% urea solution that is used for exhaust gas after treatment in an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalytic converter.

 

AdBlue is non-poisonous but has a highly corrosive effect on non-stainless steels and non-ferrous metals (e.g. copper seals or electrical contacts). Similarly, plastics not resistant to AdBlue are negatively affected (e.g. electric leads or tubing). Any AdBlue that escapes must therefore be soaked up immediately and the affected area cleaned with warm tap water.

 

Under all circumstances, AdBlue must be prevented from entering the coolant circuit - for example through transposing the lines - as engine damage results.

 

Modifications to the AdBlue system

 

Before commencing with any modification work it should be checked to see if any of the existing MAN variations of the AdBlue system can be used.

 

Due to the fact that exhaust-gas aftertreatment sensing is highly sensitive, all work must be carried out with the greatest care and the instructions in this and in all other relevant sections must be strictly adhered to.

 

All vehicle modifications must be carried out by qualified personnel.

 

The following points must be observed when working on AdBlue systems:

 

•    Subsequent to all work on the supply module, the necessity of starting up the module in accordance with the repair manual must be determined, particularly in     cases where the module has been relocated or replaced.

•    The supply module on Euro 5 vehicles may only be relocated within the limits set down in the supply module installation overview

     (see Fig. 56-III: Euro 5 supply module installation overview).

•    The supply module on Euro 6 vehicles may not be relocated. When relocating the AdBlue tank and exhaust silencer, the limits set down in the supply module     installation overview (see Fig. 57-III Euro 6 supply module installation overview) must be adhered to.

•    It is imperative to ensure that the lines are correctly connected. If AdBlue enters the cooling system there is a risk of damage to the engine.

•    The heating-water supply line to the AdBlue tank may not be bundled together with the other lines.

•    Lines may not be kinked and must be routed with adequately sized radii. Routing may not lead to the formation of syphons.

•    Plugs on the lines may not be re-used. As a basic principle, new MAN-approved plugs must be used and tightened with the approved clamps.

•    The fir-tree may not be greased when pressed into the line.

•    AdBlue freezes at -11°C. If the insulation is removed - even only partially - from the line set, insulation against the cold as effective as the standard

     insulation must be fitted.

•    Existing heating lines may not be removed.

•    As a basic principle, the routing of the heating lines, in particular the heating of the metering line up to the metering module (in Euro 5 vehicles)

     or up to the steel pipe on the exhaust silencer (in Euro 6 vehicles), must be retained.

•    The ends of the insulation must be closed off by means of suitable adhesive tape.

•    The AdBlue system, in particular any plugs that have just been pressed in, must be checked to ensure that it is leaktight.

 

 

6.4.2.2    AdBlue line set

 

The AdBlue line set carries heating water (tapped from the engine-coolant circuit) and AdBlue. This section describes the points to be observed when adapting the line set. The maximum permissible lengths of the individual lines define the limits to which components of the AdBlue system may be relocated.

 

If components of the AdBlue system are relocated, it may be necessary to adapt individual lines in the AdBlue line set. Below is a description of line implementation and of which lines are affected.

 

A description of line adaptation can be found in the sub-section headed “Extending / shortening AdBlue and heating-water lines in the line set”.

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 5 exhaust standard

 

Description of the lines:

 

•    AdBlue supply and return lines Dimensions 8.8 x 1.4 mm, made from polyamide-polyurethane, pipe col our black, lettering yellow

     (see Fig. 53-III: Identification of AdBlue line)

•    Heating-water supply and return lines for heating the AdBlue system, dimensions: 9 x 1.5 mm, made from PH12-PHL-Y, pipe colour black, lettering white

      (see Fig. 54-III: Identification of heating-water line).

 

Fig. 53-III:    Identification of AdBlue line

 

 

Fig. 54-III:    Identification of heating-water line

 

 

Maximum lengths of hose pipes in AdBlue line sets:

 

Metering line (between supply module and metering module):

 

•    maximum 3000 mm

 

Lines between supply module and AdBlue tank:

 

•    max. 6000 mm

•    A difference in height of up to +1000 mm / -1000 mm is permissible for shorter lines
     (see Fig. 55-III: Supply module installation overview Euro 5)

 

Fig. 55-III:    Supply module installation overview Euro 5

 

 

1)    AdBlue tank
2)    Supply module
3)    Metering module
4)    Urea nozzle

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 6 exhaust standard

 

Description of the lines:

 

•    AdBlue supply and return lines, metering line
•    Dimensions 3.2 x 2.65 mm, made from EPDM, hose colour black, lettering white
•    Heating-water return line from water shut-off valve to AdBlue tank and heating water return line
•    Dimensions 6 x 3 mm, made from EPDM, hose colour black, lettering white
•    Heating-water supply line to water shut-off valve
•    Dimensions 9 x 1.5 mm, made from polyamide, pipe colour black, lettering white

 

Minimum bending radii

 

•    Heating-water line made from polyamide: minimum 40 mm
•    Heating-water line made from EPDM: minimum 35 mm
•    AdBlue line made from EPDM: minimum 17 mm
•    Bundled line sets: minimum 35 mm

 

Maximum lengths of hose pipes in AdBlue line sets:

 

Metering line (between supply module and exhaust silencer):

 

•    Maximum 3000 mm.
•    It is recommended that the line descends towards the exhaust silencer along its entire length.
•    Deposits may form in the line if it rises.

 

Lines between supply module and AdBlue tank:

 

•    Maximum 4550 mm (currently the longest variant installed ex works)

•    A difference of + 500 mm / - 1500 mm in height is permissible (see Fig. 56-III: Euro 6 supply module, overview of installation)

 

Fig. 56-III:    Euro 6 supply module, overview of installation

 

 

1)    AdBlue tank
2)    Supply module
3)    Urea nozzle
4)    Exhaust silencer
H1    Height of suction line between AdBlue tank and supply module
H2    Height of pressure line between supply module and urea nozzle

 

Relocating the AdBlue supply module, AdBlue tank and exhaust silencer

 

Non-all-wheel-drive vehicles (this covers all vehicles without a transfer case) are equipped with a point of separation for the lines to the AdBlue tank. The line set can be extended / shortened at this point.

 

Fig. 57-III:    Functional diagram for Euro 6 with point of separation

 

 

1)    AdBlue tank
2)    Water shut-off valve
3)    Point of separation between AdBlue and heating water
4)    Engine
5)    Connection of heating-water line to cab heating
6)    Heating-water transfer point
7)    Supply module
8)    AdBlue metering line
9)    Exhaust silencer
10)   AdBlue return line
11)   Supply module line set
12)   AdBlue supply line
13)   Tank line set
14)   Line-set limit
15)   Heating-water supply line
16)   Heating-water return line
17)   Sheathing

 

The location of the point of separation on the left frame side member on the inner side of the gearbox cross member (see Fig. 58-III: Relocating the AdBlue tank on non-all-wheel-drive vehicles) is not permitted.

 

Notes on adapting the line set when relocating the AdBlue tank

 

1.)    In non-all-wheel drive vehicles (vehicles without a transfer case, AdBlue tank installed on the left side), the AdBlue tank is relocated as follows. :

 

•    Relocating the AdBlue tank as described in Section 6.4.2.3 “AdBlue tank”
•    Necessary adaptations to the line set

   -    When relocating the AdBlue tank towards the rear of the vehicle,
   -    the factory fitted line set must be replaced with the longest MAN line set available, which must then be shortened.
   -    (Obtainable from the MAN Spare-parts Service; MAN item no: 81.15400.6116)
   -    The heating-water supply line to the water shut-off valve must be replaced with the longest MAN line available, which must then be shortened if necessary.
   -    (Obtainable from the MAN Spare-parts Service; MAN item no: 81.15407.6027)

   -    When relocating the AdBlue tank towards the cab,
   -    the factory fitted line set may be shortened,
   -    the factory fitted heating-water supply line may be shortened.

   -    Lines here may only be shortened at the point of separation.
   -    When relocating the AdBlue tank to the right side, the description in Point 2 of this sub-section must be observed.

•    A description of line extension can be found in the sub-section headed “Extending / shortening AdBlue and heating-water lines in the line set”.
•    Information on adapting the electrical wiring can be found in Section 6.4.2.5, “AdBlue cable harness”.

 

Fig. 58-III:    Relocating the AdBlue tank on non-all-wheel-drive vehicles

 

 

1)   AdBlue tank in standard location
1a) Relocated AdBlue tank
2)   Point of separation
3)   Supply module
4)   Exhaust silencer
X   Distance by which unit is moved; maximum lengths must be observed

 

Fig. 59-III:    Connections at the point of separation

 

 

2.)    All-wheel-drive vehicles (this covers all vehicles with transfer case) are not equipped with points of separation on the AdBlue line set (see Fig. 60-III Functional        diagram for Euro 6 without point of separation). The only permissible standard location of the AdBlue tank is on the left side of the vehicle.

 

       In both all-wheel- and non-all-wheel-drive vehicles it is possible to relocate the AdBlue tank to the right side (see Fig. 61-III: Relocating the AdBlue tank on all-       wheel and non-all-wheel-drive vehicles).

 

       The longest MAN line set available is to be used and adapted for this purpose (obtainable from the MAN Spare-parts Service, MAN item nos. can be found in

       Table 20-III: Longest AdBlue cable harness in dependence on cab and exhaust).

 

       Any shortening of lines that may be necessary is to be carried out on the AdBlue tank connection.
       The heating-water line from the water-shut-off valve to the AdBlue tank must be retained.

 

Fig. 60-III:    Functional diagram for Euro 6 without point of separation

 

 

1)    AdBlue tank
2)    Water shut-off valve
3)    Heating-water point of separation (can be dispensed with for own construction)
4)    Engine
5)    Connection of heating-water line to cab heating
6)    Heating-water transfer point
7)    Supply module
8)    AdBlue metering line
9)    Exhaust silencer
10)   AdBlue return line
11)   AdBlue supply line
12)   Tank line set
13)   Line-set limit
14)   Heating-water supply line
15)   Heating-water return line
16)   Sheathing

 

Table 20-III:    Longest AdBlue cable harness in dependence on cab and exhaust

 

MAN part no.

Cab variant

Exhaust variant

Distance between supply module and tank

81.15400.6121

M cab

Ground-directed discharge

Approx. 2,500 mm

81.15400.6123

M cab

Directed upwards

Approx. 2,500 mm

81.15400.6120

L cab
LX cab
XL cab
XLX cab
XXL cab

Ground-directed discharge

Approx. 2,300 mm

81.15400.6142

L cab
LX cab
XL cab
XLX cab
XXL cab

Directed upwards

Approx. 2,300 mm

 

Fig. 61-III:    Relocating the AdBlue tank on all-wheel and non-all-wheel-drive vehicles

 

 

1)    AdBlue tank in standard location
1a)  Relocated AdBlue tank
2)    Supply module
3)    Exhaust silencer
X    Distance by which unit is moved; maximum lengths must be observed

 

Notes on adapting the line set when relocating the exhaust silencer

 

   -    Relocating the exhaust silencer as described in Section 6.4.2
   -    Necessary adaptations to the line set:
      ·    Shorten or construct a new metering line from supply module to exhaust silencer.
      ·    Shorten or construct a new heating-water line to heat the metering line.
      ·    Bundle and sheathe the above-mentioned lines up to the steel pipe on the exhaust
           silencer with Co-flex double-walled corrugated tubing system.
      ·    Shorten or construct a new heating-water return line to the engine.
   -    A description of line extension can be found in the sub-section headed “Extending / shortening
       AdBlue and heating-water lines in the line set”.
   -    Information on adapting the electrical cable harness can be found in Section 6.4.2.5, “AdBlue cable harness”.

 

Fig. 62-III:    Relocating the exhaust silencer on all-wheel and non-all-wheel-drive vehicles

 

 

1)    AdBlue tank
2)    Supply module
3)    Exhaust silencer in standard location
3a)  Relocated exhaust silencer
X    Distance by which unit is moved; maximum lengths must be observed

 

Extending / shortening the AdBlue and heating-water lines:

 

As a basic principle, the longest line sets described above in the sub-section “Relocating the AdBlue supply module, AdBlue tank and exhaust silencer” shall be employed and adapted if necessary. If the line sets available ex works are inadequate, consult MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

Below is a description of which parts are necessary in order to construct individual lines from the AdBlue line set. The parts can be ordered from the MAN Spare-parts Service. The individual parts are listed in Section 6.4.2.6 “Parts list”. When constructing individual lines, the maximum line lengths specified above must be adhered to.

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 5 exhaust standard

 

Extensions for relocating the AdBlue tank or the combi tank can be achieved by procuring the longest line set or one suitable for installation. These can be procured from the MAN Spare-parts Service. The line set may be shortened by shortening at the interface to the AdBlue supply module. Alternatively, it may be routed so that covers a longer distance. Under no circumstances may the lines from the tank to the supply module be longer than 6000 mm.

 

•    Generally only pipe-to-pipe unions with pipe connectors manufactured by VOSS are permitted • (obtainable from the MAN Spare-parts Service).

•    Inserting the pipe connector is only permitted using a special tool from Voss (crimping pliers MAN no.80.99625.0023).

•    In order to minimise pressure losses a maximum of only one extension is permissible for each corresponding heating-water/AdBlue supply or return line..

 

Fig. 63-III:    VOSS connector for extending/shortening the AdBlue and heating-water lines

 

 

•    Only pre-fitted plastic plugs with 1000 mm of line from VOSS are permitted for pressing onto the AdBlue lines (obtainable from the MAN Spare-parts Service).

•    It is imperative to avoid kinking the lines.

•    It is imperative that the lines are insulated against cold in as effective a manner as the original lines.

 

Fig. 64-III:    View of a line bundle showing heating-water and AdBlue lines

 

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 6 exhaust standard

 

Additional notes on adapting line sets.

 

•    Additional points of separation in the lines of the AdBlue line set are not permitted.

•    Only non-all-wheel-drive vehicles (vehicles without transfer case) are equipped with points of separation in the lines.

•    AdBlue lines must be constructed in a single piece from plug to plug.

•    Lines can be obtained by the metre from the MAN Spare-parts Service.

•    Do not disassemble the heating-water supply-line plug to the water shut-off valve (Fig. 65-III: Connection of heating-water supply line to water shut-off valve).      Extension of heating-water supply line only in the area of the polyamide pipe from engine to water shut-off valve.

 

Fig. 65-III:    Connection of heating-water supply line to water shut-off valve

 

 

•    Parts kit for constructing an AdBlue metering line
   -    Metering line (by the metre) – (MAN item no.: 04.27405.0092)
   -    VOSS straight plug (on supply module) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6036)
   -    VOSS elbow plug (on exhaust silencer) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6037)
   -    Oetiker clamps – (Oetiker no.: 16700004)

 

•    Parts kit for constructing an AdBlue supply line
   -    VOSS elbow plug (on AdBlue tank) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6042)
   -    VOSS connector pin (at the point of separation) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6039)
   -    Oetiker clamps – (Oetiker no.: 16700004)

 

•    Parts kit for constructing an AdBlue return line
   -    VOSS elbow plug (on AdBlue tank) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6041)
   -    VOSS straight plug (at the point of separation) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6036)
   -    Oetiker clamps – (Oetiker no.: 16700004)

 

•    Parts kit for constructing a heating-water supply line
   -    Heating-water line (by the metre) – (MAN item no.: 04.27405.0090)
   -    VOSS elbow plug (on AdBlue tank) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6027)
   -    VOSS elbow plug (on water shut-off valve) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6015) or
   -    VOSS straight plug (on water shut-off valve) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6004)
   -    Oetiker clamps – (Oetiker no.: 167000014)

 

•    Parts kit for constructing a heating-water return line
   -    Heating-water line (by the metre) – (MAN item no.: 04.27405.0090)
   -    VOSS elbow plug (on AdBlue tank) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6035)
   -    VOSS straight plug (at the point of separation) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6044)
   -    VOSS connector pin (at the point of separation) – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6038)
   -    VOSS straight plug – (MAN item no.: 81.98180.6044)
   -    Oetiker clamps – (Oetiker no.: 16700014)

 

•    Parts kit for constructing heating lines from the water shut-off valve
   -    Heating line – polyamide pipe, dimensions 9 x 1.5 - (MAN item no.: 04.35160.9709)
   -    Straight connector – (MAN item no.: 81.98181.0201)

 

•    Parts kit for constructing a compressed-air line to the water shut-off valve
   -    Compressed-air line – polyamide pipe as per DIN 74324 Part 1 or MAN standard M 3230 Part 1
   -    Straight connector – (MAN item no.: 81.98181.6043)

 

•    Parts kit for constructing sheathing / insulation
   -    Double-walled Co-flex corrugated tubing
   -    or zip material (special pliers must be used for this)

 

 

 

6.4.2.3    AdBlue tank

 

This section describes the points to be observed when modifying the AdBlue tank. When relocating AdBlue tanks, the line lengths specified in Section 6.4.2.2 “AdBlue line set” must be adhered to.

 

Installing a larger AdBlue tank

 

MAN offers variously sized AdBlue tanks for every model range as equipment variants ex works. Retrofitting a larger AdBlue tank is possible if MAN has approved it for the respective model range. In such cases, professional and correct modification by trained personnel is assumed. In order to ensure that fill-level sensing functions correctly, the vehicle will require parameterisation.

 

Relocating the AdBlue tank

 

Depending on the body concept it may be necessary to relocate the AdBlue tank. The section below describes the points to be observed in this regard.

 

When the AdBlue tank is relocated the original bracket must be employed. If the AdBlue tank is relocated to the frame bend, any possible tilt must be compensated for by spacer sleeves, for example.

 

AdBlue tanks are equipped with four connections for lines: two (supply and return) for heating water and two (supply and return) for AdBlue. The lines are individually identified as described in the sub-sections below.

 

Before the vehicle is commissioned it is imperative to make sure that all the lines are correctly connected. If AdBlue enters the coolant it will cause damage to the engine (Fig. 66-III: Line connections on the AdBlue tank).

 

Fig. 66-III:    Line connections on the AdBlue tank

 

 

1)    Heating-water supply
2)    Heating-water return
3)    AdBlue supply
4)    AdBlue return

 

A description of line adaptation can be found in the sub-section headed “Extending / shortening AdBlue and heating-water lines in the line set”.

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 5 exhaust standard

 

In addition, the following must be observed:

 

•    Relocation of combination/single tanks may only be carried out using the original MAN tanks.

•    Routing of electrical and CAN wiring (e.g. for fill-level sensor, supply module, OBD sensors) is permitted only with Genuine MAN cable harnesses

     (obtainable from the MAN Spare-parts Service).

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 6 exhaust standard

 

The vehicle’s exhaust silencer is supported by a cross strut on the AdBlue tank bracket (see Fig. 67-III: AdBlue tank with bracket and exhaust-silencer cross strut).

 

Fig. 67-III:    AdBlue tank with bracket and exhaust-silencer cross strut

 

 

If only the AdBlue tank is relocated, the cross strut must be supported by means of a special bracket. This bracket can be obtained from the MAN Spare-parts Service (MAN item no.: 81.15502.0288). (See Fig. 68-III: Bracket for exhaust-silencer cross strut for relocated AdBlue tank.)

 

Fig. 68-III:    Bracket for exhaust-silencer cross strut for relocated AdBlue tank

 

 

 

 

6.4.2.4     AdBlue supply module

 

This section describes the positions in which the supply module is fitted by the factory and what points must be observed when relocating the supply module.

 

The supply module on the TGS and TGX model ranges is assembled separately from the AdBlue tank. In vehicles complying with the Euro 5 exhaust standard, the supply and metering modules are two separate parts. In vehicles complying with the Euro 6 exhaust standard, the supply and metering modules are combined to form a single part.

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 5 exhaust standard

 

The supply module may only be relocated to original MAN installation locations using the associated Genuine MAN brackets.

 

Reason: strength/ vibrations

 

Fig. 69-III:    Supply module and Genuine MAN bracket

 

 

1)    AdBlue cable harness to AdBlue- Tank
2)    Supply module
3)    Genuine MAN bracket

 

In addition, the following must be observed:

 

•    When relocating the supply module, Genuine MAN lines sets must be used to connect the metering module.

•    The maximum possible difference in height (head) between the bottom edge of the supply module and the bottom edge of the tank is 1000 mm

     (see Fig. 55-III: Installation overview).

•    The maximum possible difference in height (head) between the bottom edge of the supply module and the upper edge of the tank (or location of

     uppermost line) is 1000 mm (see Fig. 55-III: Installation overview).

•    Non-compliance with specifications voids any claims under guarantee.

 

The chassis drawing shows the series-production status of a base vehicle without special equipment. Where special equipment is fitted, such as other tanks, auxiliary compressed-air tanks for air suspension or for adapting to ramps / engaging with swap bodies or exhaust-silencer variants with upswept tailpipe, from case to case the location of the supply module will possibly deviate from the standard location.

 

Tables 21-III and 22-III define the respective location of the supply module on trucks and semitrailer tractors depending on wheel configuration, cab and optional equipment.

 

The supply-module locations assigned to the variant are shown in Figs. 70–80-III.

 

Table 21-III:    Possible locations for the AdBlue supply module on trucks:

 

                 

Wheel configuration

Cab

Fuel tank

Exhaust

Variant

Supplementary information

4x2, 4x4H,
6x2/2, 6x2/4,
6x2-2, 6x2-4,
6x4H-2, 6x4H-4,
6x4, 6x6H,

L - XXL

AdBlue single tank

Exhaust on left side, standard

1

Important!
Also for M cab when equipped with
auxiliary tank for air suspension for matching to ramps / engaging with swap bodies

4x2, 4x4H,
6x2/2, 6x2/4,
6x2-2, 6x2-4,
6x4H-2, 6x4H-4,
6x4, 6x6H
6X4H/2, 6X4H/4

M - XXL

AdBlue / diesel combination tank

Exhaust on left side, standard

2

Important!
Change to Variant 1 when equipped with auxiliary tank for air suspension for matching to ramps / engaging with swap bodies
6x4, 6x6H, 6x4H-4 (71S) since June 2010

6x4, 6x6H, 6X4H-4

M

AdBlue / diesel combination tank

Exhaust on left side, standard

3

6x4, 6x6H, 6x4H-4 (71S) up to May 2010

4x2, 4x4H,
6x2/2, 6x2/4,
6x2-2, 6x2-4,
6x4H-2, 6x4H-4,
6x4, 6x6H

AdBlue / diesel combination tank

Exhaust with upswept tailpipe

8x4-4

All variants

All variants

4x2, 4x4H, 6x4,
6x6H, 6x2-2,
6x2-4, 6x4H-2,
6x4H-4, 6x2/2, 6x2/4
4x4, 6x4-4, 6x6

AdBlue single tank

All variants

8x2-4, 8x2-6,
8x4, 8x4H-6,
8x6, 8x6H, 8x8

M

AdBlue single tank

All variants

4

Only possible with AdBlue single tank

4x2, 4x4H,
6x2/2, 6x2/4,
6x2-2, 6x2-4,
6x4H-2, 6x4H-4,
6x4, 6x6H

L-XXL

All variants

Exhaust with upswept tailpipe

5

 

8x2-4, 8x2-6,
8x4, 8x4H-6,
8x6, 8x6H, 8x8

L-XL

AdBlue single tank

All variants

6

Only possible with AdBlue single tank

 

Table 22-III:    Possible locations for the AdBlue supply module on semitrailer tractors

 

Wheel configuration

Cab

Fuel tank

Exhaust

Variant

Supplementary information

4x2, 4x4H,
6x2-2, 6x2-4,
6x4, 6x6H

M-XXL

All variants

Exhaust on left side, standard

1

Body restriction possible with M cab, e.g.: Crane behind cab
or swap-body semitrailer tractor/truck

6x2/2, 6x2/4,
6x2-4, 6x4H-2,
6x4H-4

Single tank

4x2, 4x4H,
6x2/2, 6x2/4,
6x2-2, 6x2-4,
6x4H-2, 6x4H-4,
6x4, 6x6H

M

Combination tank

Exhaust with upswept tailpipe

3

Body restriction possible
For example: crane behind cab or swap-body semitrailer tractor/truck

4x2, 4x4H,
6x4, 6x6H,
4x4, 6x6

Single tank

4x4, 6x4-4, 6x6

Exhaust on left side, standard

4x2, 4x4H,
6x2-2, 6x4,
6x6H

L-LX

All variants

Exhaust with upswept tailpipe

5

Body restriction possible
For example: crane behind cab or swap-body semitrailer tractor/truck

6x2/2,
6x2/4,
6x2-4

4x4,
6x4-4,
6x6

 

Variant 1

 

Fig. 70-III:    Transverse above frame top edge, M cab    Fig. 71-III:    Transverse above frame top edge, L-XXL cab

 

   

 

Variant 2

 

Fig. 72-III:    Longitudinal on frame, M cab                   Fig. 73-III:    Longitudinal on frame, L-XXL cab

 

   

 

Variant 3

 

Fig. 74-III:    Longitudinal above frame top edge, M cab on left side as standard 

 

 

Fig. 75-III:   Longitudinal above frame top edge, M cab, exhaust with upswept tailpipe

 

   

 

Variant 4

 

Fig. 76-III:    Longitudinal above frame, exhaust on right side,exhaust on right side, C cab

 

 

Fig. 77-III:    Longitudinal above frame, exhaust with upswept tailpipe, C cab

 

   

 

Variant 5

 

Fig. 78-III:    L-XXL cab, exhaust with upswept tailpipe

 

 

Variant 6

 

Fig. 79-III:   L-LX cab, transverse above frame top edge, rotated 180°, exhaust on right side

 

 

Fig. 80-III:    L-LX cab, transverse above frame top edge, rotated 180°, exhaust with upswept tailpipe

 

 

 

Metering module

 

•    The location of the metering module may not be changed • (see Fig. 81-III: Temperature sensor, injection nozzle, metering module).

• Extending the pipe between the metering module and the supply module is possible up to an overall length of 3000 mm.

 

Fig. 81-III:    Temperature sensor, injection nozzle, metering module

 

 

1)    Injection nozzle
2)    Metering module

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 6 exhaust standard

 

There are currently two - cab-dependent - installation locations, which may not be changed.

 

The supply and metering modules are combines to form a single unit. The supply module is located in an easy to build manner behind the cab.

 

Fig. 82-III:    Location on vehicles with M cab

 

 

Fig. 83-III:   Location on vehicles with L, LX, XL, XLX and XXL cab

 

 

 

 

 

6.4.2.5    AdBlue cable harness

 

When modifications are made to the AdBlue system it may be necessary to adapt the cable harness.

 

This section describes the cable harness, possible points of separation and the plug connectors to be used.

 

The following must be observed for all cable routing:

 

•    Overlengths must not be laid in coil-like rings but only in loops to the side of the cable harness (see Fig. 84-III: Cable routings).

 

Fig. 84-III:    Cable routings

 

 

•   The cable harness must be secured in such a manner that no movement relative to the frame can occur (danger of chafing), see Fig. 85-III: Routing examples.

 

Fig. 85-III:    Routing examples

 

 

 

Vehicles complying with the Euro 6 exhaust standard

 

Below is a schematic diagram of the original MAN cable harness (Fig. 86-III: Schematic diagram of cable harness).

 

Fig. 86-III:    Schematic diagram of cable harness

 

 

1)   Supply module
2)    EDC control unit
3)    AdBlue tank
4)    Exhaust silencer

 

The cable harness can separated for extension purposes at the points shown below. Suitable plugs are available from the MAN Spare-parts Service for adapting the lengths of the cable harnesses.

 

Fig. 87-III:    Points of separation

 

 

1)    Point of separation a) on AdBlue-Tank
2)    Point of separation b1) on thermocouple with evaluation electronics and exhaust differential/relative pressure sensor
3)    Point of separation b2) on NOx sensor

 

A list of the respective plug connectors with the requisite parts and pin-outs can be found below.

 

Point of separation a):

 

•    Extension of cable harness to AdBlue tank
   -    Construct the extension by means of the following cables, plug and socket.
   -    Not all vehicles are equipped with a point of separation. If there is no point of separation, proceed as follows.
      -    Separate the cable harness at the interface described and construct a cable using the plug and socket described below.
      -    Insert the extension in the cable harness.

 

Table 23-III:    Plug connector for cable harness to AdBlue tank

 

Point of separation between exhaust cable harness X5508 (point of separation ahead of AdBlue tank) and bodybuilder‘s solution 6-pole BF13 - SF13 with pinning.

 

Socket housing BF13 MAN item no.: 81.25475-0280

 




Material for BF13 socket housing
Qty. MAN code MAN part no. Part designation
1 BF13 81.25475-0280 Socket housing
1 AW95 81.25433-0289 Adapter HDSCS D-180° - NW8,5
6 XU60-1<0 07.91201-6020 Contact (individual goods)
6 DL11 07.91163-0069 Sealing element

BF13 socket housing pin-out
PIN Manager Cross-section mm2 Contact Sealing element
1 90008 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
2 191 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
3 192 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
4 31000 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
5 90311 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
6 90321 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11

Material for cable set
Qty. MAN part no. Material / line
1 07.08302-0191 CAN lines 2x0,75-A-RS-191-192
5 07.08131-0302 Lines FLRY-0,75-A-RS
1 07.08131-0354 Lines FLRY-0,75-A-BRWS
1 04.37135-9938 Corrugated tube 8.5 dia.


Pin housing SF13 MAN item no.: 81.25475-0281



Material for SF13 pin housing
Qty. MAN code MAN part no. Part designation
1 SF13 81.25475-0281 Pin housing
1 AW95 81.25433-0289 Adapter HDSCS D-180° - NW8,5
6 XG60-1<0 07.61201-0255 Contact (volume goods)
6 DL11 07.91163-0069 Sealing element
1 GV53 81.25475-0287 Locking slide size: "B" yellow


SF13 pin housing pin-out
PIN Manager Cross-section mm2 Contact Sealing element
1 90008 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL11
2 191 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL11
3 192 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL11
4 31000 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL26
5 90311 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL25
6 90321 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL11

 

Points of separation b):

The cable harness to the exhaust silencer divides in a “Y”. For this reason, two cable harnesses have to be extended. The individual interfaces are described below.

Point of separation b1):

•    Extension of cable harness to NOx sensor
     -    Construct the extension by means of the following cables, plug and socket.

     -    Separate the cable harness at the interface described and construct a cable using the plug and socket described below.

     -    Insert the extension in the cable harness.

 

Table 24-III:    Plug connector on NOx sensor

 

Point of separation between exhaust cable-harness B994 (plug connector on Point of separation between exhaust cable-harness B994 (plug connector on NOx sensor on exhaust silencer) and bodybuilder’s solution 6-pole BF13 - SF13 with pinning. sensor on exhaust silencer) and bodybuilder’s solution 6-pole BF13 - SF13 with pinning.

 

Socket housing BF13 MAN item no.: 81.25475-0280



Material for BF13 socket housing
Qty. MAN code MAN part no. Part designation
1 BF13 81.25475-0280 Socket housing
1 AW97 81.25433-0295 Adapter HDSCS D-90° - NW8,5
6 XU60-1<0 07.91201-6020 Contact (individual goods)
6 DL11 07.91163-0069 Sealing element


BF13 socket housing pin-out
PIN Manager Cross-section mm2 Contact Sealing element
1 90011 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
2 191 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
3 191 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
4 31000 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
5 192 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
6 192 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11


Material for cable set
Qty. MAN part no. Material / line
2 07.08302-0191 CAN lines 2x0,75-A-RS-191-192
1 07.08131-0302 Lines FLRY-0,75-A-RS
1 07.08131-0354 Lines FLRY-0,75-A-BRWS
1 04.37135-9938 Corrugated tube 8.5 dia.


Pin housing SF13 MAN item no.: 81.25475-0281



Material for SF13 pin housing
Qty. MAN code MAN part no. Part designation
1 SF13 81.25475-0281 Pin housing
1 AW95 81.25433-0289 Adapter HDSCS D-180° - NW8,5
6 XG60-1<0 07.61201-0255 Contact (volume goods)
6 DL11 07.91163-0069 Contact (volume goods)
1 GV53 81.25475-0287 Locking slide size: "B" yellow


SF13 pin housing pin-out
PIN Manager Cross-section mm2 Contact Sealing element
1 90008 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL11
2 191 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL11
3 191 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL11
4 31000 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL26
5 192 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL25
6 192 0,75 XG60-1<0 DL11


Point of separation b2):

•    Extension of cable harness to thermocouple with evaluation electronics and exhaust differential/relative pressure sensor
   -    Construct the extension by means of the following cables, plug and socket.
   -    Separate the cable harness at the interface described and construct a cable using the plug and socket described below.
   -    Insert the extension in the cable harness.


Table 25-III:     Plug connector to thermocouple with evaluation electronics and exhaust differential/relative pressure sensor

Point of separation between exhaust cable harness A1191 + B695 body builder‘s solution (exhaust silencer) 12-pole BF15 - SF15 with pinning.

 

Socket housing BF15 MAN item no.: 81.25475-0283



Material for BF15 socket housing
Qty. MAN code MAN part no. Part designation
1 BF15 81.25475-0283 Socket housing
1 AW94 81.25433-0292 Adapter HDSCS D-180° - NW13
10 XU60-1<0 07.91201-6020 Contact (individual goods)
10 DL11 07.91163-0069 Sealing element
2 DL10 07.91163-0068 Blanking seal
1 AR17 81.25433-0118 Reducer 13-10


BF15 socket housing pin-out
PIN Manager Cross-section mm2 Contact Sealing element
1 90011 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
2 191 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
3 192 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
4 31000 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
5 191 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
6 192 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
7 90126 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
8 90127 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
9 90128 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
10 90147 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
11 frei - - DL10 (blanking plug)
12 frei - - DL10 (blanking plug)


Material for cable set
Qty. MAN part no. Material / line
2 07.08302-0191 CAN lines 2x0,75-A-RS-191-192
5 07.08131-0302 Lines FLRY-0,75-A-RS
1 07.08131-0354 Lines FLRY-0,75-A-BRWS
1 04.37135-9940 Corrugated tube 10 dia.


Pin housing SF15 MAN item no.: 81.25475-0285



Material for SF15 pin housing
Qty. MAN code MAN part no. Part designation
1 SF15 81.25475-0285 Pin housing
1 AW95 81.25433-0292 Adapter HDSCS D-180° - NW13
10 XG60-1<0 07.61201-0255 Contact (volume goods)
10 DL11 07.91163-0069 Sealing element
2 DL10 07.91163-0068 Blanking seal
1 GV59 81.25475-0338 Locking slide size: "D" yellow
1 AR17 81.25433-0118 Reducer 13-10


SF15 pin housing pin-out
PIN Manager Cross-section mm2 Contact Sealing element
1 90011 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
2 191 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
3 192 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
4 31000 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
5 191 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
6 192 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
7 90126 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
8 90127 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
9 90128 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
10 90147 0,75 XU60-1<0 DL11
11 frei - - DL10 (blanking plug)
12 frei - - DL10 (blanking plug)

 

 

 

6.4.2.6   Parts list

 

Table 26-III:    Overview of individual parts for extending lines

Illustration MAN part no. Series Designation Use
81.98180.6036 TGS
TGX
Voss straight plug
SAE 1/4“ NW3
AdBlue lines
81.98180.6037 TGS
TGX
Voss elbow plug
SAE 1/4“ NW3
AdBlue lines
81.98180.6042 TGS
TGX
Voss elbow plug
SAE J 2044 5/16“ NW3
AdBlue lines
81.98180.6039 TGS
TGX
Voss connector pin
SAE J 2044 1/4“ NW3
AdBlue lines
81.98180.6041 TGS
TGX
Voss elbow plug
SAE J 2044 3/8“ NW3
AdBlue lines
81.98180.6027 TGS
TGX
Elbow plug Heating-water lines
81.98180.6015 TGS
TGX
Elbow plug
PS3 NW 12
Heating-water lines
81.98180.6004 TGS
TGX
Straight connector
PS3 NW 12
Heating-water lines
81.98180.6035 TGS
TGX
Voss elbow plug
SAE 9,89 NW6
Heating-water lines
81.98180.6044 TGS
TGX
Voss straight plug
SAE J 2044 5/16“ NW6
Heating-water lines
81.98180.6038 TGS
TGX
Voss straight plug
SAE J 2044 5/16“ NW6
Heating-water lines
81.98181.0201 TGS
TGX
Connector for
polyamide pipe 9 x 1,5
Heating-water lines
81.98181.6043 TGS
TGX
Voss plug connector for polyamide pipe
6 x 1
Compressed-air line to supply module
OETIKER-Nr. 16700004 TGS
TGX
Stepless ear clamp AdBlue lines
OETIKER-Nr. 16700014 TGS
TGX
Stepless ear clamp Heating-water lines
Sheathing, Co-flex Type 26/32 Insulation of line sets
04.27405.0090 TGS
TGX
Hose 6 x 3 EPDM Heating-water lines

 

 

 

 

6.5    Gearbox and propshafts

 

 

6.5.1    Basic principles

 

The gearbox converts the engine torque and speed to meet the momentary demand for tractive force. Propshafts are installed to transmit the engine output from the gearbox to the transfer case and/or the final drives. Their movable splines compensate for vertical movements of the axles.

 

Propeller shafts close to where persons move or work must be encased or covered. Depending on the local legislation in the country of assignment the assembly of a safety attachment or arrester bracket can be necessary for the shaft.

 

Propshafts are implemented in various ways.

 

Single joint

When a single cardan joint, universal joint or ball joint (see Fig. 88-III) is rotated uniformly whilst bent it results in a non-uniform movement on the output side. This non-uniformity is often referred to as cardan error. Cardan error causes sinusoidal-like fluctuations in rotational speed on the output side. The output shaft leads and lags the input shaft. Despite constant input torque and input power, the output torque of the propshaft fluctuates according to the lead or lag.

 

Fig. 88-III:    Single joint

 

 

The acceleration and delay occurring twice for each rotation mean that this kind of propeller shaft cannot be used for attachment to a power take-off.

 

A single joint is feasible only if it can be proven without doubt that because of the:

 

•    mass moment of inertia,

•    Speed

•    angle of deflection,

 

the oscillations and loads are of minor significance.

 

Propeller shaft with two joints

The non-uniformity of a single joint can be compensated by joining two single joints to produce a propeller shaft. However, full compensation of the movement can be achieved only if the following conditions are met.

 

•    Both joints must have the same angle of deflection, i.e. ß1 = ß2.

•    The two inner joint forks must be on the same plane.

•   The input and output shafts must also be in the same plane, see Fig. 89-III und Fig. 90-III.

 

All three conditions must always be met simultaneously to compensate cardan error. These conditions are met in dependence on the propshaft configuration. Possible propshaft configurations are described in Chapter III, Section 6.5.2.

 

 

6.5.2    Propshaft configurations

 

Well-known propshaft configurations are the so-called Z and W configurations (see Fig.89-III and Fig. 90-III) as well as the three-dimensional configuration

(see Fig. 91-III).

 

Fig. 89-III:    W configuration of propeller shaft

 

 

Fig. 90-III:    Z configuration of propeller shaft

 

 

The conditions (cf. Chapter III, Section 6.5.1) for full compensation of movement are met by the so-called Z and W configurations. The common deflection plane that exists here may be freely rotated about the longitudinal axis. The use of the W-arrangement should be avoided in practice.

 

The exception is the three-dimensional propshaft configuration, see Fig. 91-III.

 

A three-dimensional configuration is given if the input and output shafts are not on the same plane. The input and output shafts cross offset from one another in space.

 

There is no common plane, so an offset of the inner joint forks by an angle “γ” is necessary to compensate speed fluctuations (see Fig. 91-III).

 

Fig. 91-III:    Three-dimensional propeller shaft

 

 

1)    Shaft 1
2)    Plane 1 (formed by Shaft 1 and Shaft 2)
3)    Shaft 2
4)    Plane 2 (formed by Shaft 2 and Shaft 3)
5)    Shaft 3
6)    Fork in Plane 2
7)    Fork in Plane 1
γ    Offset angle

 

A further condition is that the resulting three-dimensional angle ßR1 on the input shaft must be exactly the same as the three-dimensional angle ßR2 on the output shaft.

 

Therefore:

   ßR1    =    ßR2

 

Where:

   ßR1     =    Resulting three-dimensional angle of Shaft 1

    ßR2    =    Resulting three-dimensional angle of Shaft 2

 

The resulting three-dimensional deflection angle ßR is a function of the vertical and horizontal deflection of the propshafts and is calculated as:

 

Formula 02-III:    Resulting three-dimensional deflection angle

 

   tan2 ßR    =    tan2 ßv + tan2 ßh

 

The necessary offset angle “γ” is a product of the horizontal and vertical deflection angles of the two joints:

 

Formula 03-III:    Offset angle γ

 


                        tan ßh1                        tan ßh2
        tan γ =    ---------- ;     tan γ2          ----------   ;    γ   =   γ1   +   γ2
                          tan ßγ1                        tan ßγ2

 

Where:

   ßR    =    Resulting three-dimensional deflection angle

   ßγ    =    Vertical deflection angle

   ßh    =    Horizontal deflection angle

   γ     =     Offset angle

 

Please note that:

In three-dimensional deflection of the propeller shaft with two joints there is only a requirement for the same resulting three-dimensional deflection angles, so theoretically any number of configurations can be formed by combining the vertical and horizontal deflection angle.

 

We recommend that the manufacturers’ advice be sought for determining the offset angle for a three-dimensional propshaft configuration.

 

Propeller shaft train

If a design dictates the need for more length, it is possible to implement a propeller shaft train comprising two or more shafts. Fig. 92-III illustrates basic forms of a propeller shaft train in which the position of the joints and drivers relative to one another was randomly chosen. Drivers and joints have to be harmonized for kinematic reasons. In matters concerning propshaft train design, the propshaft manufacturers should be consulted.

 

Fig. 92-III:   Propshaft train

 

 

 

 

6.5.3    Forces in the propshaft system

 

Deflection angles in propeller shaft systems inevitably produce additional forces and moment. If a telescoping propshaft is extended or compressed whilst under load whilst under load further additional forces will be introduced.

 

Dismantling the propshaft, twisting the two halves of the shaft and then putting them back together again will not compensate for uneven movement but is more likely to exacerbate the problem. Trial and error of this kind can damage propshafts, bearings, joints, main shaft profile and sub-assemblies. So it is essential to observe the markings on the propeller shaft. The marks must be aligned when the joints are fitted (see Fig. 93-III).

 

Fig. 93-III:    Markings on propeller shaft

 

 

Do not remove any balancing plates, and do not confuse propeller shaft parts, otherwise the imbalance will appear again.

 

If one of the balancing plates is lost or propshaft parts are replaced, the propshaft must be re-balanced.

 

Despite careful design of a propeller shaft system there may still be vibrations that can result in damage if their cause is not eliminated. Suitable measures must be used to cure the problem such as installing dampers, the use of constant velocity joints or changing the entire propshaft system and the mass ratios.

 

 

6.5.4    Modifying the propshaft configuration

 

As a rule, bodymakers modify the propeller shaft system when:

 

•    modifying the wheelbase as a retrofit operation

•    attaching pumps to the propeller shaft flange of the power take-off.

 

It is important to note that:

 

•     The maximum deflection angle of each propshaft of the driveline when loaded may be 7° on each plane.

•    If a propeller shaft is lengthened, the entire propeller shaft train must be newly configured by a propeller shaft producer.

•    Modifications to the propshaft such as extensions may only be carried out by authorised workshops

•    Every propeller shaft must be newly balanced before installation.

•    Allowing the propshaft to hang on one side when fitting or removing it may lead to the shaft becoming damaged.

•    A clearance of at least 30 mm must be maintained.

 

When assessing the minimum clearance, the raising of the vehicle and associated movement of the axle due to the extension of the springs and resulting change in position of the propshaft must be taken into consideration.

 

 

6.5.5    Fitting other manual or automatic gearboxes and transfer cases

 

Fitting manual or automatic gearboxes not documented by MAN is not possible because of the absence of an interface with the driveline CAN. If non-documented manual or automatic gearboxes are fitted malfunctions may occur in safety-relevant electronic systems. Fitting a third-party transfer box (e.g. for use as a power take-off) influences the electronic circuitry of the power train.

 

On vehicles fitted with mechanical gearboxes it may, under certain circumstances, be possible to adapt the system by parameterisation. Consult MAN (for address see “Publisher” above) before any work is commenced. As a basic principle, installation in vehicles fitted with MAN TipMatic/ZF ASTRONIC (e.g. ZF12AS gearbox) is not permitted.

 

 

6.6    PTOs

 

Power take-offs connect the vehicle’s engine with the units to be driven, for example compressors or hydraulic pumps. The power take-offs that may be used on MAN vehicles are described in the supplementary booklet entitled “Power take-offs”.

 

Further assistance for the selection and design of power take-offs can be found under “Gearbox/power take-offs” in MANTED (www.manted.de, registration required).

 

The operation of units by means of the vehicle’s engine can have a considerable effect on fuel consumption. It is therefore expected that the company carrying out the work implements a design that facilitates the lowest possible fuel consumption.

 

 

6.7    Brake system

 

 

6.7.1    Basic principles

 

The brake system is among the most important safety components on a truck. No changes may be made to any part of a braking system including the lines except by appropriately trained persons. After any change a complete visual, auditory, functional and efficiency test of the complete brake system is to be performed.

 

 

6.7.2    Installing and fastening brake lines

 

The relevant notes in Chapter III, Section 6.3.5.2 “Routing lines” are to be observed when routing and fastening lines.

 

 

6.7.3    ALB, EBS brake system

 

EBS makes it unnecessary for the bodymaker to inspect the ALB (automatic load-dependent brake system), and no adjustment is possible.. Inspection may possibly be required as part of a routine check of the brake system. Should such an inspection of the brake system become necessary then a voltage measurement using the MAN-cats® diagnosis system or a visual check of the angle of the linkage at the axle-load sensor must be carried out.

 

The EBS of vehicles fitted with air suspension uses the axle-load signal transmitted by the ECAS via the CAN data bus. If conversions are carried out it must be ensured that this axle-load information is not affected. Never pull out the plug on the axle-load sensor. Before exchanging leaf springs, e.g. replacing them with springs for a different load, it should be checked with the MAN Service workshop whether reparameterisation of the vehicle is necessary in order to be able to set the ALB correctly.

 

 

6.7.4    Retrofitting continuous brakes

 

Fitting continuous brake systems (retarders, eddy current brakes) that have not been documented by MAN is fundamentally not possible.

 

Interventions in the electronically controlled brake system (EBS) and the vehicle’s on-board brake and driveline management system, which would be required in order to fit non-MAN continuous brakes, are not permitted.

 

 

6.8    MAN HydroDrive

 

MAN HydroDrive is a hydrostatic front axle drive for critical traction situations. The hydrostatic drive uses the static pressure of a separate hydraulic system to set the front axle’s two wheel hub motors in motion. The system is selectable and operates in the speed range between 0 and 28km/h.

 

Fig. 94-III:    Schematic diagram of the main HydroDrive components

 

 

1)    Hydrostatic wheel-hub motor
2)    Hydraulic line
3)    Hydraulic pump

 

Vehicles fitted with HydroDrive are regarded for registration purposes as off-road vehicles as defined by 70/156 EEC (as last amended by 2005/64/EC and 2005/66/EC).

 

The HydroDrive’s hydraulic circuit is approved solely for the regulated drive of the front axle and may not be used to supply other hydraulic systems.

 

In the case of semi-trailer tippers and other bodies where there is a risk of the cargo falling into the area around the oil cooler, an oil cooler cover must be fitted. This is available fitted ex-works or as a retrofit solution under the name “Protective cover for oil cooler/fan for HydroDrive” (Installation no. 81.36000.8134).

 

 

7.0    Running gear

 

 

7.1    General

 

Running gear in the context of these guidelines refers to the totality of parts forming the connection between the chassis frame and the wheels.

 

The running gear consists of:

 

•    Axles with wheel bearings
•    Steering
•    Springs
•    Vibration dampers
•    Axle-guide elements
•    Stabilisers

 

It serves to determine the direction of travel and tracking, the transmission of weight, tracking, acceleration and deceleration forces as well as to compensate for the changes in distances, forces and movements that occur during driving operation.

 

Fig. 95-III:    Example of rear-axle running gear

 

 

 

1)    Trapezoidal springs (spring assembly)
2)    Vibration damper
3)    Axle
4)    Axle guide
5)    Spring shackle

 

 

7.2    Modifications to the running gear

 

Interference with parts of the axle guide (e.g. control arms, springs or vibration dampers) or their brackets or fastenings on the frame are not permitted.

 

No parts of the suspension or leaf springs may be modified or removed. The use of different types or systems of springs on a single axle is not permitted.

 

If the suspension system on an axle is to be changed (for example from leaf to air suspension) approval must first be obtained from MAN (for address see “Publisher” above). Verifiable documentation must be sent to MAN prior to the modification. The executing company is responsible for design, verification of adequate strength and checking the changed handling characteristics.

 

 

 

8.0    Electrical/electronic system (on-board network)

 

 

8.1    General

 

MAN vehicles employ many electronic systems for controlling, regulating and monitoring vehicle functions. Full networking of the equipment fully guarantees that sensor readings can be processed to the same extent by all control units. This reduces the number of sensors, leads and connectors, and consequently means fewer error sources.

 

Network leads in a vehicle are recognizable because they are twisted. Several CAN bus systems are used in parallel and this enables them to be optimally adapted to perform their respective tasks. All data bus systems are reserved for exclusive use by the MAN vehicle electronics system; access to these bus systems is prohibited, with the exception of the bodybuilder CAN bus.

 

The “Electrical/electronic systems” chapter cannot present exhaustive information on all questions arising in connection with the on-board network of a modern commercial vehicle. Further information on individual systems can be found in the respective repair manuals. Repair manuals are supplied by the Spare-parts Service. Technical information can also be obtained from the MAN After Sales Portal ( http://www.asp.mantruckandbus.com, registration required). The portal provides access to service and repair manuals, the MAN diagnostic system, circuit diagrams, standard times and Service Bulletins.

 

Electrical and electronic systems and wiring incorporated in a commercial vehicle comply with the respective national plus European standards and directives, regarded as a minimum requirement. MAN standards are often considerably more stringent than national and international standards. As a result, many electronic systems have been adapted and expanded.

 

In some cases, for reasons of quality or safety, MAN stipulates the condition that MAN standards are used. This is then stated in the corresponding sections. Bodybuilders can obtain the MAN standards from the MAN Portal for Technical Documentation   http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com , registration required). There is no automatic exchange service.

 

 

8.1.1    Electromagnetic compatibility

 

Due to the interaction between the different electrical components, electronic systems, the vehicle itself and the environment, the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) must be tested. All systems in MAN vehicles meet the requirements set down in MAN standard M3285, obtainable from the MAN Portal for Technical Documentation

(  http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com).

 

On delivery ex works, MAN vehicles meet the requirements set down in EC Directive 72/245/EEC including 95/54/EC and its amendment 2004/104/EC. All equipment (definition of equipment as in 89/336/EEC) that is installed in the vehicle by the bodybuilder must meet the corresponding statutory regulations in force at the time. The bodybuilder is responsible for the EMC of its components and/or systems. After installing such components and/or systems, the bodybuilder remains responsible for ensuring that the vehicle still meets the current statutory requirements. Freedom from feedback between the body-side electrics/electronics and those of the vehicle must be ensured, especially where body-side interference could affect the operation of on-board units for road toll logging, telematics equipment, telecommunications systems or other equipment fitted to the vehicle.

 

 

8.1.2    Radio equipment and aerials

 

All equipment installed on the vehicle must comply with current statutory requirements. All radio equipment (e.g. radio units, mobile telephones, navigation systems, on-board units for road toll logging etc.) must be properly equipped with external aerials.

 

In other words:

 

•    Devices such as a radio remote control for body functions must not interfere with functions of the vehicle.
•    Existing wiring must not be moved or used for additional purposes.
•    Use as a power supply is not permitted (exception: approved MAN active antennas and their leads).
•    Access must not be hindered to other vehicle components for maintenance and repair.
•    If holes are drilled in the roof, these must be at the locations provided for in the MAN design, using approved
     installation materials (e.g. self-tapping screws, seals).

 

Antennas, leads, cables, sockets and plugs approved by MAN are obtainable through the spare parts service.

 

Annex I of EU Council directive 72/245/EEC in its version 2004/104/EC stipulates that possible locations of transmitting antennas, permissible frequency bands and transmitting power are to be published.

 

For the following frequency bands the proper fitting at the attachment points stipulated by MAN (see Fig. 98-III) on the cab roof is permitted.

 

Table 27-III:    Frequency bands approved for roof attachment

 

Frequency band

Frequency range

Max. transmitting power

Shortwave

<50 MHz

10 W

4-m band

66 MHz to 88 MHz

10 W

2-m band

144 MHz to 178 MHz

10 W

70 cm

380 MHz to 480 MHz

10 W

GSM 900

880 MHz to 915 MHz

10 W

GSM 1800

1,710.2 MHz to 1,785 MHz

10 W

GSM 1900

1,850.2 MHz to 1,910 MHz

10 W

UMTS

1920 to 1980 MHz

10 W

 

Fig. 96-III:    Schematic diagram of installation locations on cab roof

 

 

1)    Installation location, Position 1

2)    Installation location, Position 2

3)    Installation location, Position 3

 

Fig. 97-III:    Schematic diagram of installation locations on cab with high roof

 

 

1)    Installation location, Position 1

2)    Installation location, Position 2

3)    Installation location, Position 3

 

Fig. 98-III:    Diagram showing bolted connection

 

 

1)    81.28240.0151, tightening torque 6 Nm, transition resistance ≤ 1 Ω

2)    81.28200.8355, tightening torque 7 Nm ±0.5 Nm, transition resistance ≤ 1 Ω

 

Table 28-III:    Overview of aerial equipment

 

Designation

Item no.

Position

Aerial, see electrical parts list

Aerial installation

81.28200.8365

Pos. 1

Radio aerial

Aerial installation

81.28200.8367

Pos. 1

Radio aerial + D and E networks

Aerial installation

81.28200.8369

Pos. 1

Radio aerial + D and E networks + GPS

Radio aerial installation, LHD

81.28200.8370

Item 2

CB radio aerial

Radio aerial installation, RHD

81.28200.8371

Item 3

Radio aerial installation, LHD

81.28200.8372

Item 2

Trunked radio aerial

Radio aerial installation, RHD

81.28200.8373

Item 3

Radio aerial installation, LHD

81.28200.8374

Item 2

Radio aerial (2-m band)

Radio aerial installation, RHD

81.28200.8375

Item 3

Aerial installation, LHD

81.28200.8377

Item 3

GSM and GPS aerial for toll system

Aerial installation, RHD

81.28200.8378

Item 2

Radio aerial installation, LHD

82.28200.8004

Item 2

CB-radio and radio aerial

Combined aerial installation, RHD

81.28205.8005

Item 3

GSM + D and E networks + GPS + CB-radio aerial

Combined aerial installation, LHD

81.28205.8004

Item 2

 

 

 

8.1.3    Diagnostics concept and parameterisation using MAN-cats

 

MAN-cats is the MAN tool for diagnosis and parameterisation of electronic systems in vehicles. MAN-cats is used in all MAN Service outlets.

 

If the bodybuilder or the customer informs MAN of the intended use or the body type (e.g. for the intermediate speed control interface) when the vehicle is ordered, these can be incorporated into the vehicle at the factory using EOL (end-of-line) programming. If this variant is possible, under certain circumstances it may not be necessary to carry out parameterisation with MAN-cats.

 

MAN-cats must be then used if the parameters set in the vehicle are to be changed. For certain types of intervention in the vehicle systems the electronics specialists at MAN Service outlets are able to contact systems specialists at the MAN plant to obtain the appropriate releases, approvals and system solutions.

 

For vehicle modifications that require approval or are relevant to safety, necessary adaptation of a chassis to the bodywork, conversion measures or retrofits, clarify with a MAN-cats specialist from the nearest MAN Service outlet before beginning whether the vehicle will require new parameterisation.

 

 

 

8.2    Cables

 

 

8.2.1    Routing cables

 

The following must be observed for all cable routing:

 

   -    Overlengths must not be laid in coil-like rings but only in loops to the side of the cable harness (see Fig. 99-III: Cable routings).

 

Fig. 99-III:    Cable routings

 

 

   -    The cable harness must be secured in such a manner that no movement relative to the frame can occur, see Fig. 100-III: Routing examples).

 

Fig. 100-III:    Routing examples

 

 

The relevant notes in Chapter III, Section 6.3.5.2 “Routing lines” are to be observed when routing and fastening lines.

 

 

8.2.2    Ground cable

 

MAN frames are voltage-free in that neither the positive nor the ground cable is connected to it. Together with the positive cable, consumers must always have their own ground cables routed to them.

 

Ground points to which the bodybuilder can connect ground cables are located as follows:

 

•    In the central electrics box
•    Behind the combined instrument
•    On the rear right-hand engine mount.

 

No more than a total of 10 A (actual current demand) may be tapped at the ground points behind the central electrics box and behind the combined instrument. Cigarette lighters and any extra sockets have their own power limitations, which can be found in the operating manual.

 

The bodybuilder’s ground cable may as a general rule be connected to the common ground point at the engine and under the following conditions may be connected to the negative terminal of the batteries.

 

•    The vehicle is equipped with an ground cable between engine and frame (standard from January 2010 production on).

•    The battery terminal has sufficient room for connection of the ground cable.

 

Further information and instructions on connecting additional consumers can be found in Chapter III, Section 8.4 “Additional consumers”.

 

 

8.2.3    Wiring harnesses for wheelbase extensions

 

When wheelbases are extended, control units and sensors associated with the rear axle also have to be relocated along with the axle. As a basic principle, CAN wiring harnesses may never be cut and lengthened and for this reason, MAN offers cable-harness extensions each with a 1500 mm length of corrugated tubing. If these extensions are not sufficient, two of the cable harnesses described here can be connected in series. Only when the method described here is used can the movement of control units and sensors be considered as approved.

 

Control units and sensors associated with the rear axle

 

Basic equipment on all TG vehicles:

 

•    EBS axle modulator (one module for all rear axles)

•    Switch, check for parking brake

 

In the case of air suspension on the rear axle(s), the following are added:

 

•    Displacement sensor (left and right)

•    Valve block, ECAS

 

Depending on version and equipment, the following cabling is fitted.

 

•    Differential-lock plug connector

 

Cable extensions from the EBS axle-modulator to the sensors on the respective wheel (speed sensors, brake-lining wear sensors) are not necessary if the EBS axle-modulator module is relocated together with the rear axle.

 

Implementation

In some cases, cable extensions entail minor reworking of the original cable-harness plug. This is explained in detail below, where the small items that are necessary (e.g. plug housings, locking mechanisms and adapters) are referred to by their codes. Table 29-III lists a breakdown of the associated item numbers.

 

Table 29-III:    Breakdown of codes for small items

 

Code

Designation

MAN part no.

Supplier

Supplier's item no.

AW64

Adapter

81.25433.0184

Schlemmer

7807 029 K

AW65

Adapter

81.25433.0182

Schlemmer

7807 025 K

BA20

Connector housing

81.25432.0337

Grote&Hartmann

18169 000 001

BA21

Connector housing

81.25432.0338

Grote&Hartmann

18170 000 001

BA28

Connector housing

81.25432.0347

Grote&Hartmann

18166 000 001

BA70

Connector housing

81.25432.0434

Grote&Hartmann

18385 000 001

BA71

Connector housing

81.25432.0433

Grote&Hartmann

18286 000 001

BA72

Connector housing

81.25432.0436

Grote&Hartmann

18284 000 001

BB68

Connector housing

81.25432.0435

Grote&Hartmann

18515 000 001

BB69

Connector housing

81.25432.0437

Grote&Hartmann

18516 000 001

BB70

Connector housing

81.25432.0438

Grote&Hartmann

18514 000 001

GV10

Locking slide

81.25435.0994

Grote&Hartmann

14816 660 636

GV12

Locking slide

81.25435.0996

Grote&Hartmann

14818 660 636

SS1

Shrink-fit hose

81.96503.0008

Raychem

RBK 85KT 107 A 0

 

Table 30-III:    Cable-harness extensions

 

Series

Relocated unit / sensor

Item no. extension, qty.

Description / reworking

TGA
TGS
TGX

EBS rear-axle modulator (Y264)

81.25453.6306
1 x 4-pole

Unplug the 4-pole green connector (BA 28) on frame cable harness from the EBS rear-axle modulator. Disassemble the lock (GV12), eject the contacts and push into a new housing (BB69) with identical pin socket collar. Re-assemble lock GV12. Connect with adapter 81.25433.0184 (AW64) corrugated tube and plug (BB69). Alternative: Attach existing housing and cable-harness extension with shrinkdown plastic tube (e.g. SS1) to corrugated tube.

TGL
TGM

EBS rear-axle modulator (Y264)

81.25453.6305
1 x 4-pole

Unplug the factory-fitted connecting cable from the axle modulator. Plug the extension into the connecting cable. Plug the extended harness into the axle modulator. Note: On the TGL and TGM the same adapter is used for extending cable harness 81.25453.6305 from: EBS axle modulator, differential lock, displacement sensors left and rights and ECAS valve block.

TGA
TGS
TGX

Parking brake warning lamp switch B369

81.25453.6305
1 x 4-pole

Unplug 4-pole DIN bayonet connection from parking brake warning lamp switch and lengthen using extension cable harness.

TGL
TGM

Parking brake warning lamp switch B369

85.25413.6345
1 x 4-pole

 

 

Table 31-III:    Equipment-dependent cable-harness extensions

 

Series

Relocated unit / sensor

Item no. extension, qty.

Description / reworking

TGA
TGS
TGX

Differential lock X637

81.25453.6307
1 x 4-pole

Separate at the point of separation X637 and insert extension in between.

TGL
TGM

Differential lock S185

81.25453.6305
1 x 4-pole

Same cable harness for extending EBS axle modulator, displacement sensors and ECAS valve block.

 

Table 32-III:    Cable-harness extensions for air suspension on rear axles or on all axles

 

Series

Relocated unit / sensor

Item no. and qty. of extensions

Description / reworking

TGA
TGL
TGM
TGS
TGX

Displacement sensor, rear axle, left B129, right B130

81.25453.6305
2 x 4-pole
(one each on left and right). On TGA 4x2 tractor unit only one displacement sensor.

On the TGL and TGM the same adapter is used for extending cable harness 81.25453.6305 from: EBS axle modulator and differential lock.

TGA
TGL
TGM
TGS
TGX

Valve block ECAS Y132 Two-axle version, leaf/air

81.25453.6305
1 x 4-pole

TGA
TGL
TGM
TGS
TGX

Valve block ECAS Y132/61and Y132/62
Two-axle version, air/air

81.25453.6305
2 x 4-pole (per valve block)

TGA
TGL
TGM
TGS
TGX

Valve block ECAS Y161/I and Y161/II  > Two-axle version, leaf/air and air/air

81.25453.6305
2 x 4-pole (per valve block)

 

Each of the speed and brake lining wear sensors itemised in Table 33-III below are plugged into the corresponding EBS axle modulator on the rear axles. The associated cabling does not need to be extended when extending the wheelbase because the axle modulator is moved together with the rear axle. For reasons of completeness and for special designs, extension cable harnesses for speed and brake lining wear sensors are nevertheless available.

 

Table 33-III:    Cable-harness extensions for special cases

 

Series

Relocated unit / sensor

Item no. extension, qty.

Description / reworking

TGA
TGL TGM
TGS
TGX

Speed sensor, drive axle left B121

81.25453.6377
1 x 2-pole

Unplug 2-pole connector (grey BA20 left, black BA21 right) from EBS axle modulator on rear axle. Disassemble lock (GV10), eject contacts and push in a new housing with identical pin socket collar (BA70 left, BA71 right). Re-assemble lock (GV10). Connect using shrinkdown plastic tube (e.g. SS1), corrugated tube and plug (BA70/BA71). Alternative: Attach existing housing and cable-harness extension with shrinkdown plastic tube (e.g. SS1) to corrugated tube.

Speed sensor, drive axle right B122

81.25453.6378
1 x 2-pole

TGA
TGL TGM TGS
TGX

Brake-lining wear sensor B335, left drive axle

81.25453.6387
1 x 4-pole

Unplug 4-pole connector (black BA72 left, orange BB70 right) from EBS axle modulator on rear axle. Connect corrugated tube and connector with adapter 81.25433.0184 (AW64) and extend brake-lining wear sensor with extension 81.25453.6387 left / 81.25453.6388 right. Insert plug of extension (black left, orange right) into EBS axle modulator on rear axle.

Brake-lining wear sensor B334
Right drive axle, applies to drive axle on 4x2, 6x2/2, 6x2-4, 6x2/4, rear drive axle on 4x4 and rear axle 1 for all other wheel configurations

81.25453.6388
1 x 4-pole

TGA
TGL TGM
TGS
TGX

Brake-lining wear sensor B335
Drive axle 2 rear left

81.25453.6387
1 x 4-pole

Unplug 4-pole connector (black BA72 left, orange BB70 right) from brake-lining wear sensor distributor (left X2431, right X2432) and insert extension (81.25453.6387 left / 81.25453.6388 right) in-between.

Brake-lining wear sensor B334
Drive axle 2 rear right, applies to the 2nd rear drive axle on 6x4, 6x6, 8x4, 8x6 and 8x8

81.25453.6388
1 x 4-pole

TGA
(TGL TGM)
TGS
TGX

Brake-lining wear sensor B530
Supplementary axle, rear left

81.25453.6385
1 x 4-pole

Unplug 4-pole connector (green BB69 left, grey BB68 right) from brake-lining wear sensor distributor, (left X2431, right X2432) and insert extension (81.25453.6385 left / 81.25453.6386 right) in-between. Last updated 5.2006: supplementary axles are in planning for TGL and TGM.

Brake-lining wear sensor B529
Right rear supplementary axle, applies to leading/trailing axle on 6x2/2, 6x2-4, 6x2/4

81.25453.6386
1 x 4-pole

 

 

 

8.2.4    Cable harnesses for rear position lamps, additional rear position lamps, trailer sockets, side marker lamps and

               supplementary ABS sockets

 

The possible applications for these cable extensions are:

 

•    cable-harness extension for rear position lamps and trailer sockets as a result of overhang extensions
•    Connection of supplementary rear position lamps via T-distributor
•    Connection of supplementary sockets via T-distributor – potential applications:
   -    Installation of 15-pole and Type 24N/24S 7-pole sockets
   -    Installation of sockets behind cab for semitrailer
   -    Installation of trailer sockets on frame end
•    Cable-harness extensions for side marker lights

 

To extend cable harnesses or fit supplementary lights/sockets, only the cable harnesses described here may be used so as to ensure the correct functioning of the CAN data network.

 

Table 34-III:    Extension cable harnesses, rear position lamps

 

Series

Designation

Length in metres

MAN part no.

TGA
TGL
TGM
TGS
TGX

Extension cable harness for rear position lamps (per lamp)

1

81.25428.6975

Extension cable harness for rear position lamps (per lamp)

1,5

81.25428.6982

 

Table 35-III:    Extension cable harnesses for trailer sockets

 

Series

Designation

Plug colour

Length in metres

MAN part no.

TGA
TGL
TGM
TGS
TGX

Extension cable harness for trailer socket

Black

1

81.25428.6971

Extension cable harness for trailer socket

Black

1,5

81.25428.6972

Extension cable harness for trailer socket

Brown

1

81.25428.6973

Extension cable harness for trailer socket

Brown

1,5

81.25428.6974

 

Pin-out depends on the plug colour of the cable harnesses:

 

Table 36-III:    Assignment of socket to plug colour of the cable

 

Socket

Use

Standard

plug

Type 24 N

24 V 7-pole N=normal

DIN ISO 1185

1 x black

Type 24 S

24 V 7-pole S=supplementary

DIN ISO 3731

1 x brown

15-pole

24 V 15-pin

DIN ISO 12098

1 x black + 1 x brown

 

Adapter cable harnesses (T-distributors) for rear position lamps and trailer sockets are available for fitting supplementary lights and trailer sockets The functional principle is shown in Fig. 101-III.

 

Table 37-III:    Adapter cable harnesses (T-distributors) for supplementary rear position lamps

 

Series

Designation

Length in metres

MAN part no.

TGA
TGL
TGM
TGS
TGX

Adapter cable harness for rear position lamp

1,1

81.25432.6164

Adapter cable harness for rear position lamp

1,6

81.25432.6165

 

Fig. 101-III:    unctional principle of T-distributor based on example of supplementary lamp

 

 

1)    Plug extension cable harness for rear position lamp
2)    Plug in the previously used connecting cable for rear position lamp here
3)    Plug extension cable harness (T-distributor) for rear position lamp
4)    into factory-fitted rear position lamp
5)    Connect cables
6)    Plug into supplementary rear position lamp

 

Table 38-III:    Adapter cable harness (T-distributor) for additional trailer sockets

 

Adapter cable harness (T-distributor) for additional trailer sockets

Plug colour

Length in metres

MAN part no.

Adapter cable harness, symmetrical T-piece

Black

approx. 0.25

81.25432.6157

Adapter cable harness, symmetrical T-piece

Brown

approx. 0.25

81.25432.6160

Adapter cable harness, asymmetrical T-piece

Black

approx. 0.7

81.25432.6173

Adapter cable harness, asymmetrical T-piece

Brown

approx. 0.7

81.25432.6174

 

Depending on the body, it may also be necessary to relocate the side marker lamps (the statutory regulations applicable to lighting system are to be observed). If the connection cables are too short, cable-harness extensions in various lengths are available. Only original MAN side marker lamps using LED technology are permitted. Use of any other lamps will result in the partial operating permit for the lighting system to become invalid. Side marker lamps with incandescent bulbs will damage the central on-board computer.

 

Table 39-III:    Extensions for side marker lamps

 

Series

Designation

Length in metres

MAN part no.

TGA
TGL
TGM
TGS
TGX

Cable-harness extension

0,5

81.25417.6685

Cable-harness extension

1,0

81.25417.6686

Cable-harness extension

2,0

81.25429.6294

Cable-harness extension

3,0

81.25429.6295

 

An adapter cable harness also enables individual cables to be tapped (e.g. to connect a supplementary number-plate light). Individual connectors with individual cables are to be made up using seal connectors, Fig. 102-III shows how to make up an individual connector.

 

Fig. 102-III:    Making up an individual connector

 

 

1)    Corrugated tube, size 10 (04.37135-9940) or size 8.5 (04.37135-9938), depending on the number of cables, and in the corresponding length

2)    Secondary locking mechanism (81.25475-0106)
3)    7-pole connector (81.25475-0105)
4)    Blanking seal for unused connector slots
5)    Individual seals for lead cross-sections of between 0.52 and 12 (07.91163-0052)
      Individual seals for lead cross-sections of between 0.52 and 2.52 (07.91163-0053)
6)    Contact for lead cross-sections of 0,52 to 12 (07.91216-1226)
       Contact for lead cross-sections ot 0,52 to 2,52 (07.91216-1228)

 

Supplementary ABS sockets are available for alternating use as a socket behind the cab for semitrailer and as a trailer socket at frame end. However, this does not function with T-distributors but with an extension cable, see Fig. 103-III.

 

Fig. 103-III:    Use of ABS extension cable

 

 

Important:

Connect the ABS socket in accordance with use.

 

In this way the ABS socket may be mounted either behind the cab (tractor unit) or at the frame end (truck).
The cable lengths available conform with the wheelbases of the respective MAN tractor units (see Table 40-III).

 

Table 40-III:    ABS extension cables

 

Item no.

81.25453.6288

81.25453.6290

81.25453.6291

81.25453.6292

Cable length (total)

4,700mm

5,400mm

6,100mm

6,800mm

Use
Wheelbase R

Semitrailer tractor 4x2, 4x4
R <= 3,900

Semitrailer tractor 6x2
R <= 3,200+1,350

Semitrailer tractor 6x4 / 6x6
R <= 3,600+1,350

Semitrailer tractor 6x4 / 6x6
R <= 3,600+1,350

 

 

 

8.2.5    Supplementary wiring diagrams and cable-harness drawings

 

Supplementary wiring diagrams and cable-harness drawings that contain or describe body preparations can be obtained from MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

The bodymaker is responsible for ensuring that the material they use, e.g. wiring diagrams and cable harness drawings, match the status of vehicle modification.

 

Refer to the repair manuals for further technical information. These can be obtained from the Spare-parts Service or from the MAN After Sales Portal

( www.asp.mantruckandbus.com, registration required).

 

 

 

8.3     Interfaces on the vehicle, preparations for the body

 

No intervention in the on-board network is permitted except via the interfaces provided by MAN.

 

Signals must not be tapped from the CAN bus, the only exception being the bodybuilder’s CAN bus (see TG interface of the control unit for external data exchange (custom module).

 

The interfaces provided by MAN are fully documented in the sections below. Interfaces are, for example:

 

•    Liftgate
•    For start / stop device
•    Intermediate speed control
•    FMS interface
•    Tapping into the engine-on signal
•    Tapping into the speed signal
•    Tapping into the reverse-gear signal

 

If a vehicle is ordered with ready body fittings (e.g. start/stop device at end of frame) these will be installed ex works and partly connected. The instrumentation is prepared as ordered. Before commissioning the body fittings, the bodybuilder must ensure that it has used the applicable versions of wiring diagrams and cable-harness drawings in each case (see also Chapter III, Section 8.2.5).

 

MAN affixes transport securing devices (on the interfaces behind the front flap on the co-driver’s side) for delivery of a vehicle to the bodymaker. These devices must be properly removed before using an interface.

Retrofitting interfaces and/or bodywork preparations can be complicated and costly, requiring the support of an electronics specialist from the MAN Service Organisation.

 

Remote transmission from the mass storage of digital tachographs and information contained on the driver card.
MAN supports the manufacturer-independent remote transmission of data from the mass storage of digital tachographs and information contained on the driver card (RDL = remote download). The corresponding interface is published on the Internet at   www.fms-standard.com.

 

 

8.3.1    Tapping into the engine-on (D+) signal

 

The vehicle offers several options for tapping into the reverse-gear signal. The engine-on signal can be tapped from the central on-board computer because this supplies an “Engine running” signal (+24 V). This signal can be tapped into directly at the central on-board computer (connector F2, plug contact 17). The maximum load on this connection must not exceed 1 A. It should be noted that other internal consumers may also be connected here. It must be ensured that this connection is free from feedback. In addition, the engine-on signal can be tapped into amongst the signals and information supplied by the customer-specific control module (“KSM”) interface.

 

Important: D+ may not be tapped from the alternator.

 

Remote transmission from the mass storage of digital tachographs and information contained on the driver card.MAN supports the manufacturer-independent remote transmission of data from the mass storage of digital tachographs and information contained on the driver card (RDL = remote download).
The corresponding interface is published on the Internet at   www.fms-standard.com.

 

 

8.3.2    Electrical interface for liftgate

 

Electrohydraulic liftgates require very careful design of the electrical supply.

 

Ideally the electrical interface for a liftgate is provided ex works (package comprises switches, check lights, starter inhibitor and power supply for liftgate). The factory-fitted transport securing device must be removed when work on the body commences.

 

Retrofitting is a complex procedure and requires intervention in the vehicle‘s power supply, which may only be carried out by correspondingly qualified personnel at MAN Service outlets. The bodybuilder must check the circuitry of the liftgate to ensure it is suitable for MAN vehicles. Under normal circumstances triggering of interface A358 may only be effected with 24-V continuous signals – not with flash pulses. In the event of malfunction, a clocked signal may be applied briefly to relay K467.

 

For the electric interface of the liftgate, see the supplementary wiring diagram below.

 

Fig. 104-III:    Supplementary wiring diagram, liftgate for TG, MAN item no. 81.99192.1920

 

 

 

A100    255    Central electrical system
A302    352    Central computer 2
A358              Liftgate control unit
A403    339    Vehicle management computer
A407    342    Instrumentation
F219    118    Liftgate fuse (Terminal 15)

H254    Liftgate check lamp

K175    281     Start-lock relay
K467    281    Liftgate relay

S286    547    Liftgate switch

X669    Plug connector, starter interlock
X744    Plug connector, liftgate
X2541    246    Potential distributor 21-pole lead 31000
X2542    246    Potential distributor 21-pole lead 58000
X3186    Plug connector, liftgate

Leads 91003, 91336, 91555, 91556, 91557, 91572 and 91573 routed to 7-pole socket housing on frame end (rolled up)

 

 

8.3.3    Engine-Start-stop system

 

The engine start-stop system enables the vehicle’s engine to be started or stopped via a remote control or switch outside the cab.

 

The engine start-stop system is a system that works independently of the intermediate speed control interface and must be ordered separately.

 

The following variants of the engine start-stop system are available ex-works.

 

•    Engine start-stop system under the front panel (preparation)
•    Engine start-stop system on the engine
•    Engine start-stop system on the frame end (preparation)

 

If a variant is not included in the scope of a vehicle’s equipment, the engine start-stop-system can be retrofitted. It must then be ensured that both the original MAN cable harnesses and the documented connection options and locations are used.

 

It is also possible to realise the engine start-stop system by means of the CAN data bus. The requirement for this is that a customer-specific control module (“KSM”) was fitted at the factory. Further references and descriptions of connections and signals can be found in the separate guideline entitled “TG Interfaces”.

Specific parameterisation is not necessary for the engine start-stop system.

 

If the bodybuilder has installed the circuitry, the designation “Engine start-stop” must be used.
This must not be confused with the term “Emergency stop”.

 

 

8.3.4    Tapping into the speed signal

 

It is possible to tap into the speed signal from the tachograph. It must be ensured that the load on the corresponding plug contact does not exceed 1 mA!

 

This generally equates to two connected peripheral units. Should this option for tapping the signal be inadequate then the following output multipliers bearing the MAN codes can be connected:

 

•    81.25311-0022 (3 • v-pulse output, max. load 1 mA for each output) or
•    88.27120-0003 (5 • v-pulse output, max. load 1 mA for each output).

 

Option for tapping the ‘B7 signal’ = speed signal:

 

•    At connector B / plug contact 7 or plug contact 6 on the back of the tachograph
•    At the 3-pole plug connector X4366/contact 1. The plug connector is located behind a cover on the driver
    side A-pillar in the area around the driver’s footwell.
•    At the 2-pole plug connector X4659 / contact 1 or 2. The plug connector is located behind the central electrics box.
•    At the factory-fitted interface with customer-specific control module from STEP1 on (see Chapter III, Section 8.3.6).

 

Important! In order to avoid diagnostic memory entries, always switch off the ignition prior to carrying out any work on the tachograph!

 

 

8.3.5    Tapping into the reverse gear signal

 

The reverse gear signal can be tapped into on all vehicles of the TG model range. However, the type of tapping can vary between TGL/TGM and TGS/TGX.

 

The section below contains Information on how the signal can be tapped according to model range.

 

There are several options for tapping the reverse gear signal on vehicles in the TGS/TGX model range. The reverse gear signal can be tapped via the 2-pole plug connector X1627 at plug contact 1 or plug contact 2 of cable 71300. This is located in the area of the central electrics box. It must be ensured that the electrical load on the interface for the reverse gear signal does not exceed a permissible value of 100 mA.

 

It is also possible to tap the reverse gear signal via the customer-specific control module (KSM). The requirement for this is that a customer-specific control module (“KSM”) was fitted at the factory. More detailed information and descriptions of connections and signals can be found in Chapter III, Section 8.3.6.

 

Important! All work must be carried out with the ignition turned off or with the battery disconnected. In addition to accident-prevention regulations, country-specific guidelines and laws must also be observed.

 

 

 

8.3.6    Interfaces between intermediate speed control and VMC and customer - specific control module (ISC interfaces)

 

MAN‘s intermediate speed control can be realised via the following interfaces.

 

•    Interface on vehicle management computer (VMC)
•    Interface on customer-specific control module (KSM)

 

Detailed descriptions of these interface variants are documented separately. This chapter contains general explanations and an overview of the available interface descriptions.

 

Abbreviations
The following text and the detailed interface descriptions use certain abbreviations and MAN-specific terms.
These are explained in alphabetical order in Table 41-III.

 

Table 41-III:    Abbreviations and MAN-specific terms used

 

Term/abbreviation Explanation
A-CAN Set-up-CAN (CAN = Controller Area Network)
AUS Switch-off of FGR/FGB/ZDR functions
CAN Controller Area Network (= databus, digital network)
DBG Engine speed limiter
DE Digital input
EMV Electromagnetic compatibility
FIN Vehicle identification number
FFR Vehicle management computer
FGR/FGB/ZDR Vehicle speed control/vehicle speed limiter/intermediate speed control
FMS Fleet Management System
GETRIEBE-N Neutral position of gearbox
GMT Greenwich Mean Time
HGB Maximum speed limiter
High-side-Schalter Output switching downstream of Terminal 30 (+UBAT)
HP ZF automatic gearbox HP...
KS Short circuit
KSM Customer-specific control module
LED Light emitting diode
Low-side-Schalter Output switching downstream of Terminal 31 (-UBAT)
M3135 MAN works number (M+Number 3 - 4 digit)
MAN-CATS II Computer diagnostic system used in MAN workshops (CATS = computer aided testing system)
MBG Torque limiter
MDB Torque/speed limiter
MEMORY Stored function/value
NA Power take-off
NMV Power take-off prefitted depending on engine
PIN Plug contact
PTO Power take off
PWM Pulse width modulation
R-Gang Reverse gear
SET+ Increase and set speed and/or accelerate
SET- Reduce and set speed and/or decelerate
SG Control unit
T-CAN Power train-CAN (CAN = Controller Area Network)
+UBAT Pulse voltage of batteries
-UBAT Minus voltage of batteries
UTC Universal Time Code
VIN Vehicle Identification Number
ZBR Central on-board computer
ZDR Interim speed control/regulator

 

Installation location of interfaces

The ISC interfaces are located behind the front panel and can be accessed from outside after unlocking the front panel and removing the housing cover

(see Fig. 105-III).

 

Fig. 105-III:    Installation location of ISC interfaces

 

 

1)    View after cover is removed
2)    ISC interface (VMC) x1996/18-pole
3)    ISC interface (CSM) x1997/18-pole

 

Description
The interface for intermediate speed control on the vehicle management computer (FFR) is fitted as standard on
all TG chassis and tractor units.

 

The CSM interface for retrofitting is currently available in two different versions, both of which can be upgraded (installation of new version in a used vehicle) and downgraded (installation of new version in a used vehicle and old version in a new vehicle).

The fleet-management interface can only be fitted together with the CSM interface STEP05 or later (fitted ex-works since March 2002).

 

 

Table 42-III:    Available interface descriptions

 

   Intermediate speed control with interface on vehicle management computer (ZDR on FFR)
download

PDF-File:

zdr-ffr_gb.pdf

This document describes the interface for intermediate speed control on the vehicle management computer (FFR), the interface is fitted on all TG chassis and tractor units. It is however, only enabled if either intermediate speeds, a power take-off with intermediate speeds or a power take-off preparation has been ordered ex-works. Retrospective enabling or disabling of the interface is possible in authorised workshops. The general and industry-specific factory settings for the interface have been circulated to all MAN workshops via a service bulletin.
   Intermediate speed control with customer-specific control module (ZDR with KSM) STEP0

    (fitted ex-works to March 2002)

download

PDF-File:

zdr-ksm_gb.pdf

This document describes the interface on the customer-specific control module, the interface is available as a special equipment item for all TG. It is possible to retrofit the interface and modify its functions in authorised workshops. This version of the interface does not support the manufacturer-independent Fleet Management Standard (FMS). For the FMS interface, a KSM of generation STEP05 or later is required

(= Item no. 81.25806.7004).

   Intermediate speed control with customer-specific control module (ZDR with KSM) STEP05

    (fitted ex-works since March 2002 = 81.25816.7004)

download

PDF-File:

(zdr-ksmstep05-fms_gb.pdf)

This document describes the interface for the customer-specific control module of Generation Step 05, recognisable by Item No. 81.25816.7004 affixed to the housing. This interface is available as a special equipment item for all TG vehicles. It is possible to retrofit the interface and modify its functions in authorised workshops.
   Fleet management standard interface with customer-specific control module (FMS with KSM) STEP05

    (fitted ex-works since March 2002 = 81.25816.7004)

download

PDF-File:

(zdr-ksmstep05-fms_gb.pdf)

This document describes the implementation of the manufacturer-independent Fleet Management Standard Interface (FMS) for all TG vehicles. Additional information is available at www.fms-standard.com. The FMS interface is integrated into customer-specific control modules (= KSM) Step05 and later (= item number 81.25816.7004) and this is the reason why this special equipment item is a pre-requisite for connection to the FMS interface. It is possible to retrofit the interface and modify its functions in authorised workshops.
   Intermediate speed control with customer-specific control module (ZDR with KSM) STEP 1

    (fitted ex-works since August 2003 = 81.25816.7005)

download

PDF-File:

zdr-ksmstep1-fms_gb.pdf

This document describes the interface for the customer-specific control module of Generation Step 1, recognisable by Item No. 81.25816.7005 affixed to the housing. This interface is available as a special item for all TG vehicles.

It is possible to retrofit the interface and modify its functions in authorised workshops.*

* Requires a central on-board computer with code ZBR 81.25806.7033 or higher item number and vehicle management computer FFR 81.25805.7015..

   Fleet management standard interface with customer-specific control module (FMS with KMS) STEP 1

    (fitted ex-works since August 2003 = 81.25816.7005)

download

PDF-File:

zdr-ksmstep1-fms_gb.pdf

This document describes the implementation of the manufacturer-independent Fleet Management Standard Interface (FMS) for all TG vehicles. Additional information is available at www.fms-standard.com. The FMS-interface is integrated into the customer-specific control module

(= KSM) STEP05 and later (= item number 81.25816.7005), which is why this special equipment item is a pre-requisite for connection to

the FMS interface. It is possible to retrofit the interface and modify its functions in authorised workshops.*

* Requires a central on-board computer with code ZBR 81.25806.7033 or higher item number and vehicle management computer FFR 81.25805.7015.

 

 

 

8.4    Additional consumers

 

As a basic principle, the connection of additional consumers is possible. If additional electrical loads are retrofitted, observe the following:

 

•    There are no spare fuses in the central electrical system for use by the bodymaker. Extra fuses can be attached in a readied plastic container in front

     of the central electrical system.

•    Do not tap into existing vehicle power circuits.

•    Do not connect additional electric consumers to fuses that are already occupied.

•    Every added circuit must be adequately scaled and protected by its own fuses. The rating of the fuse should ensure the protection of the wiring and

     not that of the system connected to it.

•    Electrical systems must ensure adequate protection against all possible faults without affecting the electrical system of the vehicle itself.

•    Freedom from feedback must be ensured in all cases. When selecting the size of the wire cross-section, the voltage drop and the heating of the conductor

     must be taken into account. Cross-sections below 0.75 mm2 are to be avoided because their mechanical strength is not sufficient.

     The bodybuilder is responsible for the dimensioning.

•    Minus and plus leads must have the same minimum cross-section.

•    Current draw for 12-V equipment must be effected only via a voltage converter.

•    Drawing from only one battery is impermissible because unequal charges lead to overloading and damage in the other battery.

     Under certain circumstances, e.g. for body-mounted equipment with a high power requirement (e.g. electrohydraulic liftgates) or in extreme climatic

     conditions, higher capacity batteries will be required.

 

If the bodybuilder installs larger batteries, the cross-section of the battery cable must be adapted to suit the new power draw.

If consumers are directly connected to Terminal 15 (Pin 94 in the central electrics box, see Fig. 106-III) it is possible that entries will be logged in the error memories of control units as a result of a reverse flow of current into the vehicle‘s electrical system.

 

Consumers must therefore be connected in accordance with the following instructions.

 

   Power supply, terminal 15

     Always fit a relay that is triggered via Terminal 15 (Pin 94). The load must be connected via a fuse on Terminal 30 (Pins 90-1, 90-2 and 91, rear of

    central electrics box), see Fig. 106-III. The maximum load must not exceed 10 A.

 

   Power supply, terminal 30

     For maximum loads of up to 10 A the load must be connected through a circuit breaker at terminal 30 (Pins 90-1, 90-2 and 91, see Fig. 106-III,

      Central electrics box). For loads > 10 A connect directly to the batteries via a fuse.

 

   Power supply, terminal 31

     Do not connect to the batteries but instead to the ground points inside (see Fig. 106-III Central electrics box) and outside (rear right engine mounting) the cab.

 

Important!
Do not make any alterations or additions to the onboard electrical system! This applies in particular to the central electrical system. Anyone performing an alteration is responsible for damage caused by the alteration.

 

Fig. 106-III:    Central electrics box, rear view

 

 

1)    Terminal 31
2)    As standard, no cables are connected here. However, the pin may be used as an additional connecting pin – using a bridge to Pin 94 – for Terminal 15.
3)    Terminal 30
4)    Terminal 31

 

Fig. 107-III:    Wiring diagram, additional consumers

 

 

 

1)    Fuse as per rated current of permitted consumer
2)    Only connect the supply voltage of Terminal 15 of consumers that can also be installed as standard on this connection

      (exception: relay control for additional consumers).
3)    Additional consumer (maximum 10 A rated current)
4)    Relay for voltage supply Terminal 15 for the additional consumers (e.g. 81.25902-0473).

 

A100    Central electrics box
F354    Main fuse, Terminal 30
F355    Main fuse, Terminal 30
F400    Steering-column lock fuse
F522    Line 30000 fuse
F523    Line 30000 fuse
G100    Battery 1
G101    Battery 2
G102    Alternator
K171    Relay, Terminal 15
M100    Starter motor
Q101    Ignition lock
X1 00    Ground connection engine
X1 364   Bridge between connector pins 90-1 and 90-2 of the central electrics box
X1 365   Bridge between connector pins 90-2 and 91 of the central electrics box
X1 539

X1 557   plug connector, cab interface
X1 642   Ground point in cab behind combined instrument
X1 644   Ground point in cab next to central electrics box
X1 913   Bridge for cable 30076 in the cable conduit on the engine

 

8.5    Batteries

 

The battery is connected to via its two poles to the vehicle‘s electrical system. The battery master switch can be opened in order to prevent injury or damage during servicing.

 

When removing the terminals from batteries and operating the master battery switch, be sure to proceed in the following order:

 

•    Switch off all loads (e.g. lights, warning flashing indicator).
•    Switch off the ignition
•    Close the doors.
•    Wait for a period of 20 seconds before disconnecting the batteries (negative terminal first).
•    The electrical battery master switch requires an extra 15 seconds.

 

Reason:
Many vehicle functions are controlled by the central onboard computer (ZBR), which must first save its last status before power is removed from it. If, for example, the doors remain open, it will be five minutes before the computer can stop operating, because the computer also monitors the door-closing function. So with doors open it is necessary to wait more than 5 minutes before disconnecting the batteries, while closing them reduces the waiting time to 20 s. If the above sequence is not followed some control units will inevitably have incorrect entries (e.g. the central on-board computer).

 

Important

When the engine is running:

 

•    Do not turn off the master battery switch
•    Do not loosen or disconnect the battery terminals.

 

 

8.5.1     Handling and maintaining batteries

 

The test and charging cycle in accordance with the charging log/ charging schedule applies (e.g. when the vehicle is not being used whilst the body is being fitted).

 

Checking and charging the battery is to be carried out according to the charging log supplied with the vehicle and is to be initialled. Rapid charging or assist-starting equipment is not permitted for trickle charging since their use may damage control units. Vehicle to vehicle assist-starting is permitted, provided the instructions in the operating manual are followed.

 

 

8.5.2    Handling and maintaining batteries with PAG technology

 

When original factory-fitted batteries are exhausted MAN specialist workshops will only fit maintenance free PAG technology batteries (PAG = positive Ag, positive electrode with thin silver plating). These differ from conventional batteries through improved resistance to deep-discharge damage, longer shelf-life and better charging rate. The conventional filler caps have been replaced by “charge eyes“. The test and charging cycle in accordance with the charging log / charging schedule is monitored with the help of these charge eyes. The state of charge status is displayed by a ball in the middle of the filler cap.

 

Important! The filler caps (charge eyes) of maintenance-free batteries must not be opened.

 

Table 43-III:    Charge eye indications

 

View

Battery state

Procedure

Green

Correct state of battery acid, acid density above 1,21 g/cm³

The battery is charged and OK, note check completed on the charging log.

Black

Correct state of battery acid, however acid density below 1,21 g/cm³

Battery must be charged, confirm recharge on the charging log.

White

Electrolyte level too low, acid density may lie above or below 1,21 g/ cm³ liegen

The battery must be replaced.

 

A detailed Service Information, “SI no.: Amendment 2, 114002 Battery” is available from MAN specialist workshops.

 

 

8.6    Lighting installations

 

Alteration of the lighting means that the partial operating permit according to EC directive 76/756/EEC including amendment 97/28/EC becomes void. This is the case especially if the arrangement of the lights is altered, or a light is replaced by one not approved by MAN. The bodymaker is responsible for adherence to legal requirements. In particular the side marker lamps in LED technology must not be modified with other lights because it will destroy the central on-board computer!

 

Observe the maximum load on the lighting circuits. Fitting higher rated fuses than the corresponding ratings in the central electrics box is not permitted.

 

The following guideline figures are intended as maximums:

 

Table 44-III:    Lighting current paths

 

Parking light

5 A

each side

Brake light

4x21 W

Incandescent bulbs only, LED not permitted

Turn indicator

4x21 W

Incandescent bulbs only, LED not permitted

Rear fog lamps

4x21 W

Incandescent bulbs only, LED not permitted

Reversing light

5 A

 

 

The term “incandescent bulbs only” indicates that these circuits are monitored by the central on-board computer for faults, which are then displayed.

 

The installation of LED lighting elements that are not approved by MAN is prohibited. It must be noted that MAN vehicles employ a ground cable: use of the vehicle frame as a return line is not permitted (see also Chapter III, Section 8.2.2 “Ground cable”).

 

Following installation of bodywork the basic beam alignment of headlamps must be newly adjusted. On vehicles with headlamp levelling this must be performed direct on the headlamps because adjustment by the regulator does not replace basic alignment on the vehicle. Extensions or modifications to the lighting system must be carried out in consultation with the nearest MAN Service outlet because it may become necessary to reparameterise the vehicle’s electronics using MAN-cats (see also Chapter III, Section 8.1.3).

 

 

8.7    Display and instrumentation concept

 

The combined instrument is incorporated into the control unit network by means of a CAN bus system. A fault is displayed in plain text directly in the central display or through a diagnostic memory entry. The combined instrument receives all the information that is displayed in the form of a CAN message. Only long-life LEDs are used instead of incandescent bulbs.

 

The annunciator panel with its symbols is vehicle-specific, i.e. with only the ordered functions and fittings.
If additional functions are to be displayed (e.g. a retrofitted liftgate), reparameterisation is necessary.
A lens that matches the new parameters can be ordered from the MAN Spare-parts Service.

 

Bodybuilders cannot have functions of the body, e.g. liftgate or tipper operation, parameterised on the vehicle nor can they have the combined instrument fitted with the required symbols during assembly. It is neither possible to incorporate functions of the body on an “in reserve” basis nor is it permitted for the bodybuilder to incorporate its own functions into the central display or tap signals from the back of the combination instrument.

 

 

8.8    Safety and assistance systems

 

Safety and assistance systems are additional equipment that assist the driver or relieve his workload when driving the vehicle.

 

At MAN, the following systems relevant to safety are known as “assistance systems”.

 

•    Electronic stability program (ESP)
•    Lane Guard System (LGS)
•    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)
•    Lane change assistant
•    Tyre-pressure monitoring system (TPM)

 

Further systems are currently being developed.

 

The safety and assistance systems present in the vehicle may not be modified.
This applies to the systems themselves as well as to associated components, lines and brackets.

 

 

8.8.1    ESP yaw-rate sensor

 

The yaw-rate sensor is part of the ESP and is tuned individually on each vehicle.
The position and fastening of the yaw-rate sensor must not be modified.

 

Fig. 108-III:    Example of ESP yaw-rate sensor installation

 

 

1)    Sensor

 

 

 

8.8.2    Emergency Brake Assist

 

The Emergency Brake Assist system (EBA) is a driver/brake assistance system. It warns the driver of a potential rear-end collision accident and initiates action when it detects an emergency situation. If necessary, the EBA will automatically apply the vehicle’s brakes in order to minimise the effects of a collision or avoid an accident entirely.


The EBA receives information about road and traffic conditions in front of the vehicle from a radar sensor mounted within the front bumper (seeFig. 109-III Detail A).

 

Fig. 109-III:    Cab front showing installation location of radar sensor

 

 

Fig. 110-III:    Cab front Detail A (radar sensor with cover)

 

 

The radar sensor is a component relevant to safety and is located behind a cover (see Fig. 110-III, Position 1) in
the vicinity of the step surface on the front of the vehicle. To ensure trouble-free operation of the EBA it is essential that the following points are observed.


It must be ensured that the radar sensor cannot be either temporarily or permanently obscured during the operation of vehicles fitted with the EBA system. The sensor detection zone will be limited if the area scanned by the radar is partially or fully masked by any (front-end) attachments.

 

The following illustration shows the minimum field scanned by the radar sensor that must be kept free of obstructions.

 

Fig. 111-III:    Field scanned by radar sensor

 

 

Important:

 

On vehicles where the field scanned by the radar sensor is either temporarily or permanently obscured by attachments or other components (e.g. snowplough blade, cable-winch attachment, other covers or any type of plate etc.), the EBA and ACC functions must be permanently deactivated using a conversion data file.

 

During operation, flexible components on the vehicle or attachments (electric cables, hoses, wire cables or similar) must also be prevented from entering the field scanned by the radar sensor.

 

Moreover, for trouble-free operation of the EBA, the following instructions must also be observed.

 

•    The position of the radar sensor determined at the factory, its cover and attachment bracket must not be altered.
•    Neither the position nor the location, material or surface characteristics (using adhesives, grinding, painting etc.) may be modified.
•    The bracket – including the fastening of the radar sensor – may not be loosened or modified
•    Attaching other components or cables/hoses to the sensor bracket is not permitted.
•    Modifications to or interventions in the cable harness are not permitted.

 

If loosening the fastening or removing the radar sensor cannot be avoided due to maintenance or repair work, the following guidelines must also be observed for re-installation:

 

•    The radar sensor together with its bracket and cover must be re-attached in the position determined by the factory.
•    Only Genuine MAN parts may be used for fastening purposes or as spares.
•    The sensor must be calibrated by an MAN Service workshop.

 

The EBA warns the driver with (among others) an acoustic signal, as soon as it detects a risk of collision. To ensure that this acoustic signal will always operate properly, the original MAN loudspeakers (dual-coil speakers) must be left in-place.
As soon as the Emergency Brake Assist system applies the vehicle’s brakes the brake lights are activated to warn following traffic. Changing the brake lights fitted at the factory or replacing them with rear light units that are not approved by MAN is therefore not permitted. Further information about the lighting installation can be found in Section 6.6 “Lighting installations”.
Following modifications to the rear axle/rear axles, to the main frame of the vehicle or changes of tyre type and the installation of additional axles, the sensor must be calibrated by correspondingly trained personnel / an MAN Service outlet. Once the modification work has been completed the parameterisation of the vehicle’s
electronics must be checked and adjusted where required.

 

 

 

IV.    Body

 

 

 

1.0    General requirements

 

 

1.1    Requirements

 

The respective operating conditions pertaining where commercial vehicles are deployed are decisive for design.
We assume that bodybuilders observe this and take it into account when working out the body concept.
It is also expected that bodies are carefully designed to prevent vehicle overloading.

 

To this end, the following points, amongst others, must be checked.

 

•    Weight distribution (e.g. permissible axle load, minimum axle load)

•    Dimensions (e.g. overall length, overall width)

•    Material loads (e.g. on chassis frame and auxiliary frame)

•    Compatibility between electrical systems (e.g. battery, alternator, wiring)

 

To achieve optimum payload carrying capability the chassis must be weighed before work starts on the body.
Calculations can then be made to determine the best position of the center of gravity for payload and body as well as the optimum body length.

 

The design of the auxiliary frame, the connection between chassis and body and the ensuring of stability are all the responsibility of the bodybuilder.

 

 

1.2    Accessibility and freedom of movement

 

Access to the filler necks of fuel and AdBlue tanks and other operating fluids (e.g. cut-out for pump nozzle) must be ensured. In addition, accessibility to chassis components (e.g. spare-wheel lift, battery box, exhaust silencer, brakes) for servicing or repair may not be restricted by the body.

 

Controls must exhibit the specified minimum clearance.

 

The freedom of movement of moving parts must not be adversely affected by the body. Amongst others,
the following points must be observed when determining the requisite freedom of movement.

 

•    Maximum spring compression
•    Dynamic spring compression during travel
•    jounce when pulling away or braking,
•    sideways tilt when cornering,
•    Operation with snow chains
•    Limp-home mode characteristics of the air spring (e.g. damage to an air-spring bellows during a trip)

 

It is possible that parts will protrude above the frame top edge on some equipment variants in the operating states described above. For example:

 

•    Brake cylinders
•    gear control (gearshift linkage, control cable),
•    parts of the running gear (wishbone, shock absorber bracket).

 

If components of the chassis project over the auxiliary frame top edge, an intermediate frame on the auxiliary frame will create space. It can be designed to further reinforce the auxiliary frame.

 

The cab must be tiltable and it must be possible to operate the locking mechanism unhindered.
For this reason there must be no obstructions within the cab tilting radius. The tilt radii of the cabs are given in the chassis drawings (these can be obtained from MANTED www.manted.de, registration required).

 

 

1.3    Handling characteristics and driving resistances

 

Bodies have a significant influence on the vehicle’s handling characteristics and driving resistances.
These should not be subjected to unnecessary negative influence by the body.

 

The following, for example, have a negative influence on handling characteristics.

 

•    Uneven load distribution (e.g. heavy crane behind cab or at rear end)
•    High centers of gravity of body and payload

 

An uneven load distribution as a result of the body can, for example, be countered by relocating parts such as
the tank, battery box and spare wheel.

 

The effect of high centers of gravity of body and payload can be influenced by the vehicle’s equipment, for example. To this end, MAN offers special stabilising packages for high centers of gravity of body/payload.

 

Increasing the driving resistances leads, for example, to increased fuel consumption and thus to increasedCO2 emission.

 

 

1.4    Vibration

 

When the body is designed, care must be taken that no impermissible vibration loads occur during operation.
They can impair handling and ride comfort, for example. Bodies optimised for payload are especially sensitive in this regard.

 

These include, for example:

 

•    Bodies without an auxiliary frame or with a multi-part auxiliary frame
•    Bodies with auxiliary frames made from lightweight metals (e.g. aluminium)

 

In addition, as little vibration as possible is to be transmitted from the body to the chassis (e.g. bodies with separate motors).

 

If impermissible vibration occurs after completion or during the operation of a vehicle its cause must be eliminated.

 

 

1.5    Special feature of vehicles with lifting axles

 

Lifting axles can only be fully functional when the body design is matched to them.

 

The function can be restricted by the following.

 

•    Cramped installation spaces (e.g. extremely low bodies)
•    Unfavourable weight distribution (e.g. big loading cranes at rear end of frame)

 

When a lifting trailing axle is lifted, the front axle of the vehicle experiences a considerable lightening of the load.
In conjunction with back-heavy body concepts (e.g. rear loading cranes), handling characteristics may be seriously impaired. The lifting facility must be disabled if more than 80% of the permissible drive axle load is reached when travelling unladen with the crane and with the axle lifted or if the minimum front-axle load (see Chapter III, Section 2.2.8) is not reached.

 

For manoeuvring purposes the trailing axle can be relieved if the auxiliary frame and body are of adequate size (moving-off aid). The higher bending and torsional forces acting on the body and the frame structure must then be taken into account.

 

 

1.6    Vehicles with outriggers

 

Truck chassis are sometimes fitted with bodies that necessitate outriggers to ensure stability.
Example of such bodies are loading cranes, skylifters and concrete pumps.

 

As a basic principle, a distinction can be drawn between two outrigger variants:

 

•    outrigger operation with the wheels in contact with the ground
•    outrigger operation with the wheels not in contact with the ground

 

Depending on the variant selected, the chassis and its equipment may have to meet different requirements.
The following sections describe the basic requirements for the most common cases. Exceptions are possible in the case of special-purpose vehicles / body designs in consultation with the customer and MAN, under the sole responsibility of the bodybuilder. In such cases, approval must be obtained from MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

The bodybuilder is responsible for the stability of the overall system when in working operation.

 

 

1.6.1    Outrigger operation with the wheels in contact with the ground

 

Vehicles with air suspension

This section applies to vehicles fitted with at least one air-sprung axle. To improve stability on these vehicles it must be ensured that the air suspension is lowered to the buffer before commencing outrigger operation.

 

Lowering can be carried out manually or by means of the air-suspension control or automatically, using special equipment 311PE (input of parameter ECAS for crane operation or parameter ECAS for lowering the air suspension to the buffer).

If an automatic lowering system is not fitted then the user/driver must be informed of the requirement to manually lower the air suspension.

 

Special equipment 311PE automatically lowers the vehicle onto the buffers if the power take-off is engaged when the vehicle is at a standstill. Once the lowering operation has finished, the system maintains a defined residual pressure in order to protect the air-suspension bellows.
To ensure that the function is properly activated, it is imperative that the correct order of operations is observed when engaging the power take-off (see operating instructions). A check must also be carried out to ensure that the message “No ride height” appears on the display and that the vehicle has actually lowered.

 

If special equipment 311PE is selected in this case, it must be combined with special equipment 311PK (input of parameter ECAS with auxiliary circuit for suppressing the automatic levelling suspension system). Activating the 311PK function suppresses all the air-suspension system’s control functions. For this reason, the function may only be activated once the lowering procedure has been completed.

It can be activated by means of the switch installed ex works (see operating instructions). Moreover, it is also possible to activate this function via the body. If this is the case, the switch installed ex works must be removed or disabled.

 

If special equipment 311PK is not already fitted to the vehicle, it can be retrofitted by an MAN Service outlet
(for further details see MAN Service Information 239704a).

 

We explicitly point out that this measure does not contribute to stability and is therefore not a means of extending the technical limits of body-mounted equipment (e.g. cranes). The ECAS controlling function may only be suppressed during working operation.

 

The functions provided by special equipment 311PE are deactivated when the engine / power take-off or similar is turned on or off and the standard control of the ECAS system activated (setting the air suspension to ride height).

 

 

1.6.2    Outrigger operation with the wheels not in contact with the ground

 

Although the complete raising of the axles has advantages in terms of ensuring stability within physical limits, the load that results puts a greater strain on frames and auxiliary frames.

 

Vehicles with air suspension

This section applies to vehicles fitted with at least one air-sprung axle.
Completely raising the axles can lead to damage due to the resulting drop in pressure in the air-suspension bellows. In order to avoid such damage, MAN recommends special equipment 311PE (input of parameter ECAS for crane operation or parameter ECAS for lowering the air suspension to the buffer) in this case. Amongst other things, this regulates the residual pressure to approx. 0.5 bar in outrigger operation.

 

The functions provided by special equipment 311PE are deactivated when the engine / power take-off or similar is turned on or off and the standard control of the ECAS system activated (setting the air suspension to ride height).

 

 

 

1.7 Tolerances

 

The usual tolerances and hystereses must also be taken into consideration in designing the body.

These include, for example:

 

•    Tyres
•    Springs (including hysteresis in air-suspension systems)
•    Frame

 

The tolerances in technical data published by MAN are in accordance with MAN standard M3264.
This can be obtained from the MAN Portal for Technical Documentation (   http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com) verfügbar.

 

Deviations in dimensions are unavoidable. Further dimensional changes can be expected during the use of a vehicle.

 

These include, for example:

 

•    Settling of springs,
•    Deformation of tyres,
•    Deformation of bodywork.

 

 

1.8    Assembly

 

The chassis frame must not be deformed or detached before or during assembly.

 

Before the body is assembled, the vehicle should be driven backwards and forwards a few times to release any trapped stresses. This applies in particular to vehicles with driven tandem-axle units because of the secondary bending of the axles when cornering.

 

Place a vehicle on a level surface to install bodywork.

 

Different frame heights left/right of ≤ 1.5% of the distance from the ground to the frame top edge are within the range of the hysteresis and settling effects described in Chapter IV; Section 1.7. They may not be compensated by aligning the frame, shims in the springs or adjustment of the air suspension because they
inevitably change during operation. Differences in height of > 1.5% must be reported to the MAN Customer Services department before any repairs are carried out. This department decides what measures are to be taken by the bodybuilder and/or the MAN Service workshop.

 

The body must sit torsionally flexible on the frame main members.

 

Renewed checks or adjustments will be necessary on a vehicle after installing the body.
This applies in particular to the headlights, sensors fitted to the front of the vehicle (e.g. radar sensor for the emergency-braking assistant) as well as rear and side underride protection.

 

 

1.9    Korrosionsschutz at Aufbauten

 

Surface and corrosion protection influence the service life and appearance of a product.
The coating quality of bodywork should consequently be that of a chassis.
In order to fulfil this requirement, MAN works standard M3297 “Corrosion protection and coating systems for non-MAN bodies” is binding for bodies that are ordered by MAN. If the customer commissions the body, this standard becomes a recommendation only. Should the standard not be observed, MAN provides no warranty for any consequences.


MAN works standards can be obtained from the MAN Portal for Technical Documentation (   http://ptd.mantruckandbus.com).

 

Series-production MAN chassis are coated with environmentally friendly, water-based two-component chassis top-coat paints at approx. 80°C. To ensure uniform coating, the following coating structure is required for all metal component assemblies on the body and auxiliary frame and subsequent to frame modifications on the chassis.

 

•    Bare metal or blasted component surface (SA 2.5)
•    Priming: two-component epoxy primer, approved in accordance with MAN works standard M3162-C or, if possible, cathodic dip painting to MAN works

    standard M3078-2, with zinc phosphate pre-treatment.
•    Top coat: two-component top-coat paint to MAN works standard M3094, preferably water-based; if there are no facilities for this, then solvent-based paint

     is also permitted.

 

Instead of priming and painting the vehicle with a top coat, the substructure of the body (e.g. longitudinal and cross-members, corner plates) may also be galvanised with a layer thickness ≥ 80 µm. Refer to the data sheets of the paint manufacturer for details of curing and drying times and temperatures. When selecting and combining materials the compatibility of the different metals (e.g. aluminium and steel) must be taken into consideration as must the effects of the ‘electrochemical series’ (cause of contact corrosion).

 

After completing all work on a chassis:

 

•    remove any drilling swarf,
•    deburr edges,
•    preserve cavities with wax.

 

Mechanical joints (e.g. screws, nuts, washers, bolts) that are not painted over need optimum corrosion protection. To prevent corrosion through salt while a vehicle is stationary during the bodybuilding phase, wash all chassis with fresh water upon arrival at the bodybuilder’s premises to remove salt residue.

 

 

1.10    Standards, directives and regulations

 

The following section lists examples of standards, directives / guidelines and regulations applying to truck bodies. This overview is, however, not intended to be exhaustive. We wish to point out that the overall system consisting of chassis and body must comply with the conditions for registration in the respective country.

 

 

1.10.1    Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC)

 

The Machinery Directive can be obtained from EUR-Lex at the following link:

  http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:157:0024:0086:DE:PDF or from

  http://eur-lex.europa.eu

 

General

The Machinery Directive serves to ensure the health and safety of persons, in particular of employees, consumers and objects, in particular in relation to the risks inherent whilst using machinery.

 

It sets forth generally applicable, fundamental health and safety protection requirements in accordance with the state of the art at the time of design, together with technical and commercial requirements that are supplemented by a range of specific requirements for certain classes of machine.

 

There is an appropriate procedure for every type of machine with which compliance with the fundamental health and safety protection requirements can be checked. These include the conformity assessment procedures, the CE conformity markings and a risk assessment. Furthermore, the manufacturer of the machine must prepare technical documentation for each machine.

 

Scope and purpose

In addition to these guidelines to fitting bodies, bodybuilders must also observe the Machinery Directive.
The Machinery Directive is fundamentally not applicable to the truck’s chassis because the applicable statutory requirements are defined in the Directive on type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers (70/156/EEC).


The Machinery Directive does, however, apply to various bodies. The products (truck bodies) that fall under this scope of application are defined in Article 1 of the Directive (“Scope”).

 

The Machinery Directive applies fundamentally to:

 

•    Machines
•    Interchangeable equipment
•    Safety components
•    Lifting accessories
•    Chains, ropes and webbing
•    Removable mechanical transmission devices
•    Partly completed machinery

 

Examples include:

 

•    Loading cranes
•    Liftgates (tail-lifts)
•    Tipper bodies
•    Flushing and suction bodies
•    Recovery platform bodies
•    Compressors fitted to the body
•    Garbage compactors
•    Concrete / cement drums
•    Troughs
•    Mechanically driven cable winches
•    Roll-off and set-down skip loader bodies
•    Aerial work platforms / skylifters
•    Tank bodies

 

Among others, exceptions include:

 

•    Agricultural and forestry tractor units
•    Motor vehicles and their trailers (70/156/EEC)

 

If such a product (body/mounted equipment) is mounted onto the truck chassis, then the Machinery Directive
applies not to the truck chassis, but to the body that is mounted upon it. The Machinery Directive also applies to the interfaces between the truck chassis and the body that are responsible for the safe movement and operation of the machine. This is why it is necessary to differentiate between self-propelled agricultural machines (which fall fully under the Machinery Directive) and truck chassis with bodywork that includes or has machinery mounted on it.

 

Examples of self-propelled machines include:

 

•    Self-propelled construction machines
•    Concrete pumps
•    Truck-mounted crane
•    Gully emptiers
•    Drilling rig carrier vehicles

 

Definition of machinery in accordance with 2006/42/EC

 

“ — an assembly, fitted with or intended to be fitted with a drive system other than directly applied human or animal
effort, consisting of linked parts or components, at least one of which moves, and which are joined together for a specific application;

 

— an assembly referred to in the first indent, missing only the components to connect it on site or to sources of energy and motion;

 

— an assembly referred to in the first and second indents, ready to be installed and able to function as it stands only if mounted on a means of transport, or installed in a building or a structure;

 

— assemblies of machinery referred to in the first, second and third indents or partly completed machinery referred to in point (g) which, in order to achieve the same end, are arranged and controlled so that they function as an integral whole;

 

— an assembly of linked parts or components, at least one of which moves and which are joined together, intended for lifting loads and whose only power source is directly applied human effort;”

 

Source: Excerpt from 2006/42/EC

 

CE marking (CE conformity marking in accordance with 2006/42/EC)

The bodybuilder shall ensure that the superstructure, along with its attachments and accessories, complies with the statutory requirements. The Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC) sets forth the types of machinery that require CE marking.

 

The following apply fundamentally to the superstructure:

 

•    All machinery must carry the CE mark. In other words, this includes all components relevant to safety, removable mechanical transmission devices, chains,

     ropes and webbing.
•    Partly completed machinery may not carry a CE mark.

 

For the CE marking of machinery, the following applies:

 

•    The CE marking shall be affixed to the machinery visibly, legibly and indelibly.
•    The affixing on machinery of markings, signs and inscriptions that are likely to mislead third parties as to the meaning or form of the CE marking, or both,

    shall be prohibited.
•    Any other marking may be affixed to the machinery provided that the visibility, legibility and meaning of the CE marking is not thereby impaired.

•    In order to ensure the same quality for the CE marking and the manufacturer’s mark, it is important that they be affixed according to the same techniques.

    In order to avoid confusion between any CE markings which might appear on certain components and the CE marking corresponding to the machinery,

    it is important that the latter marking be affixed alongside the name of the person who has taken responsibility for it, namely the manufacturer or

    his authorised representative.
•     It is prohibited to pre-date or post-date the date of manufacture of the machinery when affixing the CE marking.
•    If the CE marking is reduced or enlarged the proportions shown in the drawing reproduced here must be maintained.
•    The various components of the CE marking must have approximately the same vertical dimensions, which may not be less than 5 mm.

    The minimum dimension may be waived for small-scale machinery.

 

The CE conformity marking shall consist of the initials “CE” taking the following form:

 

 

Where machinery is also the subject of other Directives relating to other aspects and providing for the affixing of the CE marking, the marking shall indicate that the machinery also conforms to the provisions of those other Directives. However, where one or more of those Directives allow the manufacturer or his authorised representative to choose, during a transitional period, the system to be applied, the CE marking shall indicate conformity only to the provisions of those Directives applied by the manufacturer or his authorised representative.
Particulars of the Directives applied, as published in the Official Journal of the European Union, shall be given on the EC declaration of conformity. Where the full quality assurance procedure referred to in 2006/42/EC, 12(3)(c) and 12(4)(b) has been applied, the CE marking must be followed by the identification number of the notified body.

 

Model plate on body

For identification purposes, each body must be fitted with a model plate that must contain the following data as a minimum:

 

•    Full name of body manufacturer
•    Full type-approval number

 

The characters must be at least 4 mm high. The details on the model plate must be durable.

 

 

1.10.2    Securing of cargo

 

The standards applicable to the securing of cargo on commercial vehicles must be observed.
In Europe, these are in particular EN12640 (lashing points), EN12641 (tarpaulins) and EN12642 (bodies).

 

 

1.10.3    Contour markings

 

If required under the national conditions for registration, contour markings as per ECE-R48 or 76/756 EEC are to be affixed.

 

 

 

 

2.0    Body and auxiliary-frame design

 

 

2.1    General requirements

 

Bodies are assembled on a continuous or multi-part auxiliary frame or without an auxiliary frame on the truck chassis according to the type of load occurring and the design of the body. The following sections deal with the requirements to be met by various designs and their connection to the chassis frame.

 

Introduction of force from body to chassis frame

A commercial vehicle is subject to very different stresses in operation.

 

These include, for example:

 

•    static and dynamic loads exerted by mass forces (e.g. by the cargo),
•    loads when cornering,
•    loads when braking and when pulling away.

 

Fig. 01-IV:    The loads exerted on a commercial vehicle

 

 

These loads must be carried equally by the chassis and the body. In most cases, the loads can be carried only by the combination of chassis and body. For this reason, it is imperative in body design that the body itself, the chassis and their connection all be taken into consideration.

 

The basic principles applying to the vertical and horizontal transmission of force between body and chassis are as follows.

 

•    Forces shall be transmitted as evenly as possible over areas as large as possible (e.g. over a continuous auxiliary frame).
•    If the body is fitted on a multi-part auxiliary frame or without an auxiliary frame, it must be ensured that
    the force is transmitted as evenly as possible to all parts of the auxiliary frame or all parts of the body.
•    The transmission of horizontal forces must be as even as possible along the entire length of the body and on both sides of the vehicle.

    This applies to bodies with continuous or multi-part auxiliary frames as well as to bodies without auxiliary frames.

 

Frame deflection and torsion

 

Frame deflection and torsion may not cause any undesirable characteristics in either the body or the vehicle.
The body and chassis must be able to absorb such forces safely.

 

Formula 01-IV gives a rough estimate of permissible deflection.

 

Formula 01-IV:    Permissible deflection

 

                 lt

   f    =   --------   

                250

 

Where:

 

   f    =    Maximum deflection [mm]

   lt    =    Theoretical wheelbase [mm] (see Chapter III, Section 2.2.1)

 

 

2.2    Body with auxiliary frame

 

The section applies both to continuous and multi-part auxiliary frames.

 

Support frame design

A subframe must have the same outer width as the chassis frame, and follow the contour of the main frame.

 

The main member of the subframe must lie flat on the upper flange of the frame main member.

 

As far as possible the auxiliary frame should be designed to be flexible. The chamfered U-profiles common in vehicle construction are very suitable for producing the required torsional flexibility.

 

If a subframe is closed at different points to form a box, ensure a gradual transition from box to U-profile. The length of the transition from closed to open profile must be at least three times the width of the auxiliary frame (see Fig. 02-IV).

 

Fig. 02-IV:    Transition from closed to U-profile

 

 

 

Where possible, the auxiliary-frame cross members are to be arranged above the locations of the frame cross members.

 

There shall be cross members at the kinks in the auxiliary-frame side members.

 

Transverse weld seams at the kinks are to be avoided. If thrust plates are necessary in these areas, they shall be located in front of and behind the kinks.

The auxiliary-frame side member must reach as far forward as possible – at least beyond the rearmost front spring hanger (see Fig. 03-IV – Pos. 1).
In the case of air-sprung front axles, we recommend a clearance of ≤ 600 mm between the center of the first axle and the auxiliary frame.

 

Fig. 03-IV:    Clearance between auxiliary frame and center of first axle

 

 

1)    rearmost front spring hanger

 

In order to comply with the required dimensions, the auxiliary frame must follow the contours of the frame.

 

To avoid variations in rigidity, the auxiliary frame must be tapered or recessed at the front (see Fig. 04-IV and Fig. 05-IV).

 

Fig. 04-IV:    Auxiliary frame tapering at front              Fig. 05-IV:    Auxiliary frame recess at front

 

 

On the projections of auxiliary frames, the end edges of the lower flange of the auxiliary frame shall exhibit a radius (radius = 0.5 * thickness of auxiliary-frame material) (see Fig. 06-IV - Pos. 1). Sharp edges must be avoided.

 

Fig. 06-IV:    End edge of auxiliary-frame lower flange

 

 

No moving parts may be restricted in their freedom of movement by the auxiliary-frame structure.

 

Permissible materials

 

Taking into account safety coefficients, the yield point, also known as the elongation limit or σ0,2 limit, must not be exceeded in any driving or load state. The materials most commonly used for auxiliary frames are listed in Table 01-IV. Higher-quality materials or materials with comparable characteristics not listed here can also be used.

 

Table 01-IV:    Subframe materials (examples), standard designations and yield points

 

Material number

Material
designation,
old

Old
standard

Material
designation, new

New standard

Yield point
N/mm2

Tensile strength
N/mm2

Suitability for auxiliary frames

1.0570

St52-3

DIN 17100

S355J2G3

DIN EN 10025

≥ 355

ca. 490-630

Highly suitable

1.0974

QStE340TM

SEW 092

Not available

 

≥ 340

ca. 420-540

Not for point loads

1.0976

Not available

Not available

S355MC

DIN EN 10149-2

≥ 355

ca. 430-550

Highly suitable

1.0978

QStE380TM

SEW 092

Not available

DIN EN 10149-2

≥ 380

ca. 450-590

Highly suitable

1.0980

QStE420TM

SEW 092

S420MC

DIN EN 10149-2

≥ 420

ca. 480-620

Highly suitable

1.0984

QStE500TM

SEW 092

S500MC

DIN EN 10149-2

≥ 500

ca. 550-700

Highly suitable

 

Should point loads arise or if units are to be fitted that exert localised forces, e.g. liftgates, cranes and cable
winches, then steels with a yield point of σ0,2 > 350 N/mm² must always be used. Rolled sections are not permitted.

 

 

2.3    Body without auxiliary frame

 

An auxiliary frame may be unnecessary under the following circumstances.

 

•    The transmission of force between body and chassis occurs over a large area (point loads are not permitted).
•    The combination of chassis and body exhibits sufficient flexural rigidity (e.g. resistance to loads exerted by cargo).
•    The combination of chassis and body exhibits sufficient torsional and shear rigidity (e.g. resistance to loads exerted by cargo).
•    The torsional rigidity of the body does not impermissibly hinder the necessary torsion of the chassis frame.

 

The distance between the body cross members must not exceed 600 mm (see Fig. 07-IV). If necessary, this distance of 600 mm may be exceeded in the area of the rear axles.

 

Fig. 07-IV:    Distances between cross members if no auxiliary frame is fitted

 

 

The minimum lengths of the supports on the frame must be calculated according to the rules of Hertzian contact stresses. Proceed from linear contact between two cylinders and not from linear contact of cylinders on a plane. Fig. 08-IV is an exaggerated presentation of the deformation of two U-profiles on top of one another. In addition, Fig. 08-IVPos. 1 depicts linear contact between chassis and auxiliary frame. A calculation example can be found in Chapter V, Section 1.11 “Support length for body without auxiliary frame”.

 

Fig. 08-IV:    Deformation of two U-profiles

 

 

Approval must be obtained from MAN before bodies mandatorily requiring an auxiliary frame in terms of these guidelines may be fitted without an auxiliary frame (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

 

 

2.4    Attaching auxiliary frames and bodies

 

Join the subframe and chassis frame either flexibly or rigidly. Depending on the bodywork situation the two kinds of connection will be combined (i.e. semi-rigid indicating the length and region of the rigid connection).

 

The forces introduced from the body into the subframe - in particular fixture of the body in relation to the frame structure - and the associated connections to the main frame are the responsibility of the bodymaker.

 

Attachment brackets supplied by MAN are intended for the flexible fitting of loading platforms and box bodies. Suitability for other additions and bodies is not expressly ruled out. But it is necessary to examine whether they are strong enough for the installation of equipment and machines, hoists, tanker bodies, etc.

 

Flexible shims (e.g. wooden shims) between the frame and the auxiliary frame or the frame and the body are not permitted (see Fig. 09-IV - Pos. 1).

 

 

Fig. 09-IV:    Flexible shims

 

 

Reasoned exceptions are possible, however approval must be issued by MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

2.5    Threaded connections and riveted joints

 

Threaded connections with a minimum strength class of 10.9 and mechanical locking device are permitted (see also Chapter III, Section 1.3.3).

 

It is also possible to use high-strength rivets (e.g. Huck-BOM, blind fasteners) – manufacturers’ installation instructions must be followed.

 

A riveted joint must be at least equivalent to a bolted connection in terms of design and strength.

 

Fig. 10-IV:    Riveted joint on open and closed sections

 

 

 

 

2.6    Flexible connection

 

A flexible joint is friction-locked. Relative movement between the frame and subframe is possible to a certain degree.

 

All bodies or subframes bolted to the vehicle frame by mounting brackets are flexible connections. Even when thrust plates are used, these connecting pieces should be regarded as flexible if they do not comply with the requirements of a rigid connection (see Chapter IV, Section 2.7).

 

For a flexible joint the attachment points provided on the chassis are used first. If these are inadequate or unsuitable for design reasons, additional means of attachment must be provided at suitable points.

 

If additional drill holes in the frame are required, the requirements set out in Chapter III, Section 1.3.3 must be observed.

 

The number of fasteners must be selected so that the distance between the centers of the attachment points does not exceed 1200 mm (see Fig. 11-IV).

 

Fig. 11-IV:    Distance between auxiliary-frame fasteners

 

 

If MAN retaining brackets are supplied loose or fitted to the vehicle, the bodybuilder still responsible for ensuring that the number and arrangement (existing frame drill holes) are correct or adequate for its particular body.
The retaining brackets on MAN vehicles have oblong holes that run in the longitudinal direction of the vehicle(see Fig. 12-IV, Pos. 1). They compensate any tolerances and, on flexible joints, allow the unavoidable lengthwise movement between the frame and subframe or the frame and bodywork. To compensate for the width clearances, the auxiliary-frame retaining brackets may also have oblong holes and these must be arranged at right angles to the longitudinal direction of the vehicle (see Fig. 12-IV, Pos. 2).

 

Fig. 12-IV:    Mounting bracket with oblong holes

 

 

The retaining brackets on the frame are flush with the frame upper edge (tolerance 1 mm).
The different space between the retaining brackets of the frame and auxiliary frame shall be compensated by
inserting shims of appropriate thickness (see Fig. 13-IV). The shims must be of steel, grade S235JR (= St37-2) atng sufficient. The use of more than four shims at any single attachment point is to be avoided (see Fig. 13-IV, Pos. 1). An air gap of max. 1 mm is permissible.

 

Fig. 13-IV:    Shims between mounting brackets

 

 

The threaded connections of the first retaining brackets on the left and right sides are subject to high vertical loading.
Use long bolts e.g. with spacer sleeves (≥ 25 mm) on the front auxiliary-frame fastenings (see Fig. 14-IV, Pos. 1) to allow more room for expansion for front-fitted, flexibly-connected auxiliary frames (this does not apply to three-point mountings or diamond-shaped mountings – see Fig. 21-IV, Chapter IV, Section 3.2). The outside diameter of the spacer sleeves should be the same as the width across the bolt head (across corners).

 

Fig. 14-IV:    Increased elongation capacity through long bolts and spacer sleeves

 

 

For examples of other types of flexible fasteners (e.g. shackle fasteners), see Fig.15-IV and 16-IV.

 

Fig. 15-IV:    Long bolts and cup springs

 

 

Fig. 16-IV:    Briden (shackle) attachment

 

 

1)    Shackle, strength 8.8
2)    Spacer non-elastic
3)    Attached on frame web only
4)    Angular bracket or U-shaped bridging piece
5)    Angle plate, approx. 5 mm thick, fitted

 

 

2.7    Rigid connection

 

With a rigid joint relative movement between the frame and subframe is no longer possible. The subframe
consequently follows all movement of the frame. If the connection is rigid, the frame and the auxiliary frame profile in the vicinity of the rigid connection are regarded as one single section for calculation purposes.

 

Retaining brackets delivered ex works are not rigid connections, just like other force- / friction-locked joints.
Only positive-locking connecting elements are rigid. Positive-locking connecting elements are rivets or bolts.
However, bolts are only classed as rigid connectors if a hole tolerance of ≤ 0.3 mm (as per DIN 18800) is maintained. Solid-shank bolts are to be used for rigid joints.
The hole wall must not contact the bolt thread (Fig. 17-IV). The minimum grade is 10.9. Due to the short grip lengths that are normally required, use may be made of spacer sleeves (as shown in Fig. 18-IV).

 

Fig. 17-IV:    Contact between bolt thread and hole wall

 

 

Fig. 18-IV:    Fitting of shear plate

 

 

1)    Subframe
2)    Thrust plate
3)    Thread must not touch hole wall of shear plate and frame
4)    Spacer sleeves
5)    Frame
6)    Welds may encroach into the radii of the thrust plates by a max. of 45°

 

Fig. 19-IV:    Subframe attachment with puddle welding

 

 

Shear plates can be of one piece on each side of the frame, but single ones are preferable.

 

The thickness of the thrust plate must be the same as the thickness of the frame web; a tolerance of +1 mm is permitted.

 

To degrade the frame’s ability to twist as little as possible, only locate shear plates where they are absolutely essential. The beginning, end and required length of a rigid joint can be computed. Design the attachment based on this calculation. Flexible fasteners can be selected for the remaining attachment points outside the defined rigid area.

 

 

 

3.0    Bodies

 

 

3.1    Semitrailer tractors

 

MAN offers different semitrailer tractor variants. These range from the standard semitrailer tractor to chassis especially developed for heavy-duty transport. Various fifth-wheel couplings and pick-up plates are also available.

 

 

3.1.1    Chassis and equipment

 

The fifth-wheel lead stated in the sales documents or chassis drawings is valid only for the standard vehicle.
Items of equipment that affect the vehicle’s dead weight or dimensions may necessitate a change in the fifth-wheel lead. This may in turn entail a change in the fifth-wheel load and the overall train length.

 

If a truck chassis is to be used as a semitrailer tractor or deployed optionally as a semitrailer tractor or a truck, please refer to Chapter III, Section 2.3.5.

 

 

3.1.2    Requirements for bodies

 

The general requirements for the design of bodies as stated in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be heeded.
The semitrailer and the semitrailer tractor together form a unit. Careful matching of weights and dimensions is therefore necessary so that overloading or damage can be ruled out.

 

The following points must therefore be checked:

 

•    Slew radii
•    Fifth-wheel height
•    Fifth-wheel load
•    Freedom of movement of all parts
•    Statutory requirements.

 

The angles of inclination required by ISO 1726 are 6° towards the front, 7° towards the rear and 3° to the side.
Different tyre sizes, spring rates or fifth-wheel heights between tractor and semitrailer may reduce these angles so much that they no longer meet the standard. Apart from the inclination of the semitrailer towards the rear its inclination to the side during cornering, the spring compression (axle location, brake cylinders, wheel caps), snow chains, swinging movement of a tandem axle unit (if present) and slew radii must also be taken into account (see Fig. 20-IV). The values for high-cube bodies with low semitrailer tractors may differ from those stated.

 

Fig. 20-IV:    Dimensions on semitrailer tractors

 

 

If a fifth-wheel coupling is to be fitted, we recommend the following procedure before the vehicle is put into operation. This will ensure that the maximum possible fifth-wheel load is adhered to while the permissible and minimum axle loads are complied with. It will also guarantee the necessary clearance between semitrailer tractor and semitrailer and ensure that the statutory requirements are met:

 

•    Weigh the vehicle
•    Draw up an axle load calculation
•    Determine the optimum fifth-wheel lead
•    Check the front slew radius
•    Check the rear slew radius
•    Check the angle of inclination towards the front
•    Check the angle of inclination towards the rear
•    Check the overall length of the tractor-semitrailer combination
•    Fit the fifth-wheel coupling accordingly.

 

Only type-tested fifth-wheel couplings and mounting plates that meet EC directive 94/20/EC may be used.

 

The fifth-wheel coupling to be fitted depends on a number of factors. As with trailer couplings, the decisive factor is the D value. For the tractor-semitrailer combination the smaller D values of the kingpin, fifth-wheel coupling and mounting plate apply. The D value can be found on the respective type plates. The formulae for calculating the D value for semitrailer trains can be found in the booklet “Coupling devices TG”.

 

At permissible fifth-wheel load the plane of the pickup plate on the semitrailer should be parallel to the road.
The height of the fifth-wheel coupling and/or mounting plate must be designed accordingly.

 

A fifth-wheel coupling must not be fitted without a subframe. Under certain circumstances so-called direct fitting of a fifth-wheel coupling is possible: here a fifth-wheel coupling is fitted to the subframe with special bearing mounts together with a reinforcement plate (not subject to type-testing), and no mounting plate is necessary. The subframe dimensions and the material quality used must be as stated in Chapter IV, Section 2.2.

 

The fifth-wheel coupling mounting plate must not rest on the frame main members but solely on the fifth-wheel subframe. Only bolts approved by MAN or by the manufacturer of the mounting plate may be used to fasten the mounting plate.

 

When fitting fifth-wheel couplings and mounting plates, follow the instructions/guidelines of the manufacturer of the fifth-wheel coupling.

 

Connecting lines for the air supply, brakes, electrics and ABS must not chafe against the coupling or semitrailer or be trapped or caught during cornering. For this reason freedom of movement of all lines during cornering must be checked by the body manufacturer with the semitrailer. If the tractor is to be operated without a semitrailer, all lines must be securely fastened in dummy couplings (susies) or plugs. These connections must also be fitted so that the semitrailer can be hitched up and unhitched safely. If it is not possible to connect up air and electric connections from the road, a suitable working area and steps up to it must be provided.

 

 

3.2    Platform and box bodies

 

Requirements to be met by the body

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

For even distribution of the load on the chassis the body is normally attached through a subframe.

 

Closed bodies such as a box body are designed torsionally stiff in relation to the chassis frame. To prevent the desired torsion of the frame, for example when cornering, from atng hindered by the body, the body should be fastened flexibly at the front and rigidly at the rear.

If the vehicle is to be capable of off-road operation, we recommend using a three-point or diamond-shaped mounting to fasten the body (see Fig. 21-IV).

 

Fig. 21-IV:    Options for torsionally rigid bodies compared to flexible chassis with three-point and diamond-shaped mounting

 

 

When planning the body, special attention must be paid to the free movement of the wheels.
Additional space may be required for any of the following reasons, amongst others.

 

•    Lowering of air suspension
•    Fully compressed running-gear suspension
•    axle twist
•    Operation with snow chains
•    Side tilt of the vehicle

 

Hinged vehicle sides may not contact the road surface even at full suspension compression.

 

Chapter IV, Section 3.9 “Loading canes“ must be observed when fitting retaining brackets for forklifts carried on the vehicle. They are to be treated as detachable loading cranes.

 

 

3.3    Swap body fittings

 

 

3.3.1    Chassis and equipment

 

The TGS and TGX model ranges include fully air-sprung chassis that can be delivered ex works with a rack for swap containers. Connection dimensions and centering mechanisms comply with the EN 284 standard. These chassis were developed especially for on-road operation.

 

 

3.3.2    Requirements to be met by the body

 

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

Use of MAN swap body fittings

However, unrestricted use of MAN swap body fittings available ex works is not possible if other bodies are used.
Subsequent modifications to MAN swap body fittings are permitted only when approved by MAN (or address see “Publisher” above). This may be necessary when, for example, supporting points or other dimensions have to be changed. The center supports may not be dispensed with.

 

Technical drawings of the MAN swap body fittings can be obtained from MANTED (www.manted.de) in the “Swap body fittings” module.

 

Use of non-MAN swap body fittings

Swap bodies should rest on the entire length of the frame on the chassis frame. For this reason, a continuous auxiliary frame is recommended.

 

An auxiliary frame can be omitted if the requirements in Chapter IV, Section 2.3 are met. In this case, however, the frame side members (Fig. 22-IV – Pos. 2) are to be protected against wear (e.g. by means of an anti-wear profile as shown in Fig. 22-IV – Pos. 1).

 

Fig. 22-IV:    Anti-wear profile with swap container

 

 

Materials with a yield point of ≤ 350 N/mm² may be used for the anti-wear profile. An anti-wear profile can only assume the function of an auxiliary frame when suitable materials are employed (see Chapter IV, Section 2.2) and the bodybuilder has verified its suitability by calculation.

 

The usual mountings for swap containers are provided specifically for swap-body mountings. If these mountings are to be used to fasten different types of bodies (e.g. transport concrete mixers, tippers, semitrailer bodies and so on), their suitability must be confirmed by the manufacturer or by the bodybuilder.

 

 

 

 

3.4    Liftgates

 

Requirements to be met by the body

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2. are to be observed.

 

Before designing in a liftgate (or loading platform, tail lift for example) examine compatibility with the design of the vehicle, the chassis and the body.

 

The fitting of a liftgate influences:

 

•    Weight distribution
•    Body and overall length
•    Frame flexing
•    Subframe flexing
•    Type of connection between frame and auxiliary frame
•    On-board electrical network (battery, alternator, cabling)

 

The bodymaker must:

 

•    Calculate the axle loads.
•    Adhere to the stipulated minimum front-axle load (see Chapter III, Section 2.2.6 “Minimum front-axle load”).
•    Avoid overloading the axles.
•    If necessary, shorten the body length and rear overhang, or lengthen the wheelbase.
•    Examine stability.
•    Design the auxiliary frame and the connections to the frame (flexible, rigid) – see the sub-section “Defining the auxiliary frame” in this chapter
•    Provide batteries of adequate capacity ≥ 175 Ah, preferably 225 Ah and sufficiently powerful alternator
     (at least 28 V/80 A, preferably 28 V/110 A); available as special equipment ex works.
•    Install an electrical interface for the liftgate (available ex-works as special equipment; for wiring diagrams and pin-out see the sub-section

     “Electrical connections” in this chapter).
•    Observe rules and regulations, e.g.:
   -    EC machinery directive (consolidated version of directive 89/392/EEC: 98/37/EC)
   -    Accident prevention regulations
   -    Install underride protection complying with the applicable national conditions for registration.
   -    Fitting of approved lighting devices acc. to 76/756/EEC.

 

Defining the auxiliary frame and connection to frame

 

The subframe tables are applicable subject to the following:

 

•    Adherence to the minimum front-axle load as set down in Chapter III, Section 2.2.6 “Minimum front-axle load”.
•    There is no constructional overload of the rear axle(s).
•    In addition to the vertical loads exerted on the liftgate, the minimum front-axle load and maximum rear-axle load of the towing vehicle must be added

     during testing.
•    Adherence to the given limits for maximum vehicle overhang.
•    The lifting axle must be lowered on vehicles fitted with lifting axles when the liftgate is in operation.

 

The values in the tables are the benchmark values for which, due to strength/deformation reasons, no outriggers are required.

 

Outriggers are only required if:

 

   -    The liftgate loading capacity limits given in the tables are exceeded.
   -    Outriggers are required for stability reasons.

 

If outriggers - although not required - are fitted, this does not affect the size of the auxiliary frame. It is not permitted to raise the vehicle on the outriggers, as this could damage the frame.

 

The tables are sorted in ascending order according to tonnage class, variant descriptor, suspension type and wheelbase. The variant descriptors (e.g. TGS 18.xxx 4x2 BB, TGX 26.xxx 6x2-2BL) are an aid to orientation. The three-digit model numbers (also known as model code numbers) are binding (see Chapter II, Section 2.2).

 

With respect to overhang - always with reference to the last axle centerline - both the frame overhang of the standard production chassis and the overall maximum vehicle overhang are stated (including body and liftgate, see Fig. 23-IV). This may not be exceeded subsequent to the fitting of the liftgate. If the maximum overhang length has to be exceeded, the values set down in the table are not to be used. The chassis frame and the auxiliary frame are to be separately dimensioned by the bodybuilder.

 

The auxiliary frames in the tables are examples. Thus U120/60/6 is a U-profile open to the inside with outer height of 120 mm, 60 mm wide top and bottom, and 6 mm thick over the entire cross-section.
Other steel profiles are acceptable if they have at least equivalent values in respect of the moment of inertia Ix, moments of resistance Wx1, Wx2 and yield point σ0,2.

 

Table 02-IV:    Technical data of subframe profiles

 

Profile

Height

Width

Thickness

Ix

Wx1, Wx2

σ0,2

σB

Ground

U100/50/5

100 mm

50 mm

5 mm

136 cm4

27 cm3

355 N/mm2

520 N/mm2

7,2 kg/m

U100/60/6

100 mm

60 mm

6 mm

182 cm4

36 cm3

355 N/mm2

520 N/mm2

9,4 kg/m

U120/60/6

120 mm

60 mm

6 mm

281cm4

47 cm3

355 N/mm2

520 N/mm2

10,4 kg/m

U140/60/6

140 mm

60 mm

6 mm

406 cm4

58 cm3

355 N/mm2

520 N/mm2

11,3 kg/m

U160/60/6

160 mm

60 mm

6 mm

561cm4

70 cm3

355 N/mm2

520 N/mm2

12,3 kg/m

U160/70/7

160 mm

70 mm

7 mm

716 cm4

90 cm3

355 N/mm2

520 N/mm2

15,3 kg/m

U180/70/7

180 mm

70 mm

7 mm

951cm4

106 cm3

355 N/mm2

520 N/mm2

16,3 kg/m

 

 

A flexible connection of the auxiliary frame is identified with a “w”, In a semi-rigid construction (identified with an “s”) the number of threaded connections, the weld seam length – in each case per frame side – and the start of the rigid connection are stated with reference to the centerline of the first axle (see Fig. 17-IV). For the rigid and/or semi-rigid connection, the conditions listed in Chapter IV, Section 2.7 “Rigid connection” apply.
In addition to the connecting elements listed in the tables, the installation guidelines of the liftgate manufacturer must also be observed when assembling the liftgate attachment plates.

 

Fig. 23-IV:    Liftgate installation: overhang dimensions, dimensions with semi-rigid connection

 

 

1)    Flexible area
2)    Rigid area
3)    Beginning from the centerline of the first axle
4)    Frame overhang
5)    Maximum vehicle overhang

 

Tables 03-IV:    Subframe and mounting method

 

TGS/TGX 18. Type of connection: w = flexible s = rigid

 

03S      TGS/TGX 18.xxx 4x2 BB (leaf-leaf)

Wheelbase

Standard frame overhang

Max. vehicle overhang

Liftgate payload

Min. auxiliary frame

Type of
connection

Per frame side >

Beginning from the centerline of the first axle <

Bolt borehole
Ø 16+0.2

Weld-seam length

< 4,800

 

< 2,800

< 30.0

No subframe necessary

5,100

2,900

< 3,000

< 20.0

No subframe necessary

< 30.0

U 160/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

16

750

2,950

5,500

3,200

< 3,300

< 15.0

No subframe necessary

20.0

U 120/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

600

3,200

30.0

U 100/50/5

s

16

800

3,200

5,900

3,400

< 3,500

10,0

No subframe necessary

15,0

U 100/50/5

w

 

 

 

20.0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

14

650

3,400

30.0

U 100/50/5

s

18

850

3,400

6,300

3,700

< 3,750

< 10.0

No subframe necessary

15,0

U 160/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

550

3,650

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

14

650

3,650

30.0

U 120/60/6

s

20

800

3,650

6,700

3,400

< 4,000

< 7.5

U 100/50/5

s

10

450

3,850

10,0

U 100/50/5

s

12

550

3,850

Important: Total length > 12 m

15,0

U 100/50/5

s

14

650

3,850

 

 

 

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

16

750

3,850

 

 

 

30.0

U 140/60/6

s

24

950

3,850

05X 08S 13S 13X semitrailer tractors - conversion to truck with liftgate not permitted

 

Dimensions in mm, loads in kN

 

TGS/TGX 18. Type of connection: w = flexible s = rigid

 

06S 06X 10S 10X 15S 15X     TGS/TGX 18.xxx 4x2 BL / LL / LL-U (leaf-air / air-air / air-air for low-body design)

Wheelbase

Standard frame overhang

Max. vehicle
overhang

Liftgate payload

Min. auxiliary frame

Type of
connection

Per frame side >

Beginning from the centerline of the first axle <

Bolt borehole
Ø 16+0.2

Weld-seam length

< 4,200

 

< 2,350

< 30.0

No subframe necessary

4,500

2,350

< 2,600

< 20.0

No subframe necessary

30.0

U 120/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

16

700

2,600

4,800

2,500

< 2,800

< 20.0

No subframe necessary

30.0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

16

750

2,750

5,100

2,900

< 3,000

< 15.0

No subframe necessary

20.0

U 120/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

550

2,950

30.0

U 100/50/5

s

16

750

2,950

5,300

2,900

< 3,000

< 10.0

No subframe necessary

15S 15X

 

 

15,0

U 100/50/5

w

 

 

 

20.0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

14

550

3,050

30.0

U 100/50/5

s

16

800

3,050

5,500

3,200

< 3,200

< 10.0

No subframe necessary

15,0

U 160/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

600

3,200

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

14

700

3,200

30.0

U 120/60/6

s

20

800

3,200

5,900

3,400

< 3,500

< 7.5

No subframe necessary

10,0

U 120/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

10

450

3,400

15,0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

550

3,400

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

14

650

3,400

30.0

U 120/60/6

s

20

750

3,400

6,300

3,700

< 3,750

< 7.5

U 120/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

10

400

3,650

10,0

U 160/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

10

450

3,650

15,0

U 100/50/5

s

12

550

3,650

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

14

650

3,650

30.0

U 140/60/6

s

20

800

3,650

6,700

3,400

< 4,000

< 10.0

U 100/50/5

s

12

550

3,850

 

 

 

15,0

U 120/60/6

s

16

600

3,850

Important: Total length > 12 m

20.0

U 120/60/6

s

18

700

3,850

 

 

 

30.0

U 160/70/7

s

24

800

3,850

 

Dimensions in mm, loads in kN

 

TGS/TGX 24. 6x2-2 Type of connection: w = flexible s = rigid

 

45S 45X     TGS/TGX 24.xxx 6x2-2 LL-U (air-air with low-body design)

Wheelbase

Standard frame overhang

Max. vehicle
overhang

Liftgate
Payload

Min.
Hilfsrahmen

Connection type

Per frame side >

Beginning from the centerline of the first axle <

Bolt borehole
Ø 16+0.2

Weld-seam length

4,500

2,050

< 2,450

< 7.5

No subframe necessary

+ 1,350

 

 

10,0

U 140/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

10

600

3,400

15,0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

700

3,400

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

14

800

3,400

30.0

U 120/60/5

s

20

900

3,400

4,800

2,150

< 2,650

< 7.5

U 160/60/6

w

 

 

 

+ 1,350

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

10

550

3,550

10,0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

600

3,550

15,0

U 100/50/5

s

14

750

3,550

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

16

850

3,550

30.0

U 140/60/6

s

22

1,000

3,550

 

Dimensions in mm, loads in kN

 

TGS/TGX 26.xxx 6x2 Type of connection: w = flexible s = rigid

 

18S 18X 21S 21X     TGS/TGX 26.xxx 6x2-2, 6x2-4 BL / LL (leaf-air / air-air)

Wheelbase

Standard frame overhang

Max. vehicle overhang

Liftgate payload

Min. auxiliary frame

Type of
connection

Per frame side >

Beginning from the centerline of the first axle <

Bolt borehole
Ø 16+0.2

Weld-seam length

3,900

1,950

< 1,950

< 20.0

No subframe necessary

+ 1,350

 

 

30.0

U 120/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

14

750

3,050

4,200

2,150

< 2,200

< 20.0

No subframe necessary

+ 1,350

 

 

30.0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

14

800

3,200

4,500

2,400

< 2,450

< 10.0

No subframe necessary

+ 1,350

 

 

15,0

U 120/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

600

3,400

20.0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

14

700

3,400

30.0

U 100/50/5

s

16

850

3,400

4,800

2,600

< 2,650

< 7.5

No subframe necessary

+ 1,350

 

 

10,0

U 120/60/6

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

10

550

3,550

15,0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

12

650

3,550

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

14

700

3,550

30.0

U 120/60/6

s

18

850

3,550

5,100

2,800

< 2,900

< 7.5

U 160/60/6

w

 

 

 

+ 1,350

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

10

500

3,700

10,0

U 180/70/7

w

 

 

 

 

U 100/50/5

s

10

550

3,700

15,0

U 100/50/5

s

12

650

3,700

20.0

U 100/50/5

s

14

750

3,700

30.0

U 120/60/6

s

20

850

3,700

5,500

3,100

< 3,200

< 7.5

U 100/50/5

s

10

550

3,950

+ 1,350

 

 

10,0

U 100/50/5

s

12

650

3,950

15,0

U 100/50/5

s

14

700

3,950

20.0

U 120/60/6

s

16

750

3,950

30.0

U 160/60/6

s

22

950

3,950

5,900

2,900

< 3,500

< 7.5

U 100/50/5

s

12

650

4,200

+ 1,350

 

 

10,0

U 120/60/6

s

14

650

4,200

Important: Total length > 12 m

15,0

U 140/60/6

s

18

750

4,200

 

 

 

20.0

U 160/60/6

s

20

850

4,200

 

 

 

30.0

U 180/70/7

s

26

950

4,200

 

Dimensions in mm, loads in kN

 

Electrical connection

Electrical preparation for connection to a liftgate can be ordered ex works for some vehicles.
Further technical information can be found in Chapter II, Section 8.3.2 “Electrical interface for liftgate”.

 

 

3.5    Tank and container bodies

 

Depending on the kind of goods transported, vehicles must be equipped by those responsible in line with national stipulations, directives, rules and regulations. In Germany, the technical inspection organisations (e.g. DEKRA, TÜV) can provide information regarding the transportation of hazardous goods (subject to the Hazardous Goods Regulations).

 

 

3.5.1    Chassis and equipment

 

Due to the high centers of gravity exhibited by tank and container bodies, we recommend equipping chassis with the stabilising packages available ex works for bodies/loads with high centers of gravity.

 

 

3.5.2    Requirements to be met by the body

 

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

Tank and container bodies generally require a continuous auxiliary frame.

 

The joint between the body and chassis at the front must be such that the twisting ability of the frame is not affected.

This can be achieved by front mountings that are as flexible as possible, e.g.

 

•    Pendulum mounting (Fig. 24-IV)
•    Elastic mounting (Fig. 25-IV)

 

Fig. 24-IV:    Front pendulum mounting               Fig. 25-IV:    Front elastic mounting

 

 

The front mounting point should extend as close as possible to the front-axle centerline. A laterally rigid body support must be provided in the area of the theoretical rear-axle centerline (see Chapter III, Section 2.2.1). At this point also ensure an adequately scaled joint with the frame. The distance between the theoretical rear-axle
centerline and the middle of the support must be ≤ 1000 mm (see Fig. 26-IV. Pos. 1). The connection behind the cab must be realised in such a manner that frame torsion is impaired as little as possible (see Fig. 26-IV – Pos. 2).

 

Fig. 26-IV:    Arrangement of tank and bulk container mounting

 

 

Tank and container bodies without auxiliary frame

Tank and container bodies without auxiliary frames are permitted for the chassis listed in Table 04-IV. In addition, it is mandatory to adhere to the number of mounting points and the dimensions shown in Fig. 27-IV. The dimensions for locating the tank mountings refer to the centerline of the first axle or the theoretical rear-axle centerline (see Fig. 27-IV – Pos. 1).

 

Table 04-IV:    Chassis for tank bodies without auxiliary frame using the corresponding number of mounting points

 

                           

Type

Wheel configuration

Suspension

Wheelbase

06S

4x2
4x4H

Leaf-air suspension

3.600-4.500

06X

22S
22X

10S
10X

Air suspension all round

18S

6x2-2
6x2-4
6x4H-2
6x4H-4
6x2-4

Leaf-air suspension

3.900-4.500
+ 1.350

18X, HV1

35S

35X

74S

89S

89X

21S

 

Air suspension all round

 

21X

42S

6x2/2
6x2/4
6x4H/2
6x4H/4

Leaf-air suspension

2.600-4.150
+ 1.350

42X

 

 

Fig. 27-IV:    Tank mounting requirements for construction without an auxiliary frame

 

 

Should these dimensions be exceeded the frame may exhibit impermissibly high deflection and a continuous auxiliary frame can become necessary.

 

The stated conditions for bodies without an auxiliary frame apply exclusively to vehicles operated on paved roads.

 

After fitting the body be sure to check for vibration or other negative handling characteristics.
Vibration can be corrected by subframe design and arrangement of the tank mounting.

 

 

3.6    Refuse-collector body

 

Refuse-collector bodies can be realised as rear-loaders, side-loaders or front-loaders. In every case, the requirements to be met by chassis and body as well as the applicable standards and Directives (e.g. EN 1501) must be adhered to right from the concept phase.

 

 

3.6.1    Chassis and equipment

 

An MAN final cross member at the rear of the frame is mandatory for this type of body. If the frame overhang subsequently has to be shortened, Chapter III, Section 2.3.2 must be observed. The use of any other cross member at the end of the frame is not permitted.

 

 

3.6.2    Requirements to be met by the body

 

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

For refuse-collector bodies, continuous auxiliary frames are recommended. Bodies on multi-part auxiliary frames are possible.

 

Refuse-collector bodies with emptying systems (e.g. rear-loaders) require auxiliary frames with sufficient torsional and shear rigidity. This can be achieved by equipping the auxiliary frame with appropriate cross members, for example. In addition, the connection to the chassis frame at the rear is to be implemented over a large area, for example by means of thrust plates.

 

If further bodies such as loading cranes, for example, are added to the refuse-collector body, the relevant chapters in the guidelines must also be observed.

 

Refuse-collector vehicles are usually designed for operation on paved roads. This must be taken into account when selecting a chassis for applications on unpaved roads and reinforcement measures must be carried out.

 

 

3.7    Tippers

 

 

3.7.1    Chassis and equipment

 

To improve stability on vehicles with air suspension it must be ensured that the air suspension is lowered before commencing the tipping operation. Lowering can either be done manually via the ECAS control unit or it can be automatic using special equipment Sales Code 311PH (input of the ECAS parameters for air suspension lowering to 20 mm above the buffers).
Special equipment 311PH automatically lowers the vehicle to the defined level above the buffers if the power take-off is engaged when the vehicle is at a standstill. To ensure that the function provided by Sales Code 311PH is properly activated it is imperative that the correct order of operations is observed when engaging the power take-off (see operating instructions). A check must also be carried out to ensure that the message “No ride height” appears on the display and that the vehicle has actually lowered.


If an automatic lowering system is not fitted then the user/driver must be informed of the requirement to manually lower the air suspension.

If tipper bodies are fitted to chassis not intended for tipper bodies ex works, these chassis must be equipped for operation as tippers. This may result in the replacement of leaf springs or stabilisers, for example. In such cases, approval must be obtained from MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

 

3.7.2    Requirements to be met by the body

 

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

Tipper bodies require a chassis designed for their special purpose. MAN has corresponding chassis in its range, which can be found at MANTED (www.manted.de).


Factory-built tipper chassis require no additional work if it is ensured that the following points are observed.

 

•    The permissible gross weight
•    The permissible axle loads
•    The standard tipper body length
•    The standard frame overhang
•    The standard vehicle overhang
•    The maximum tipping angle of 50° to the rear or side

 

All tipper bodies requires a continuous auxiliary frame made from steel (see Chapter IV, Section 2.2).

Tipping operations may lead to increased torsional loads on the chassis frame and the auxiliary frame. Because of these loads, the auxiliary frame must be implemented with sufficient torsional stiffness. The torsional stiffness of an auxiliary frame can be increased by fitting a diagonal strut, for example, (see Chapter IV, Section 3.9.3).

 

Tipper rams and tipper mountings must be incorporated into the auxiliary frame.

 

The following design parameters must be observed.

 

•     Tipping angle to the rear or side ≤ 50°
•    During tipping to the rear, the center of gravity of the tipper body with payload may not move behind the centerline of the last axle unless stability of

     the vehicle is guaranteed (see Fig. 28-IV– Pos. 1).

 

We recommend the following:

 

•    The height of the center of gravity of the tipper body during tipping operation should not be exceeded (see Table 05-IV and Fig. 28-IV).
•    The rear tipper mounting is to be located as close as possible to the theoretical rear axle (see Chapter III, Section 2.2.1). - Dimension “b”,

     see Table 05-IV and Fig. 28-IV.

 

Table 05-IV:    Tipper: Maximum height of center of gravity and tipper-mounting distance

 

Chassis

Dimension „a“ [mm]

Dimension „b“ [mm]

Two axles

≤ 1.800

≤ 1.100

Three- and four-axle vehicles

≤ 2.000

≤ 1.250

 

Fig. 28-IV:    Tipper: Maximum height of center of gravity and tipper-mounting distance

 

 

For reasons of operating safety or operating conditions or in cases where the stated values are exceeded, supplementary measures may be required. For example, the use of hydraulic outriggers to improve stability or the relocation of certain units may be necessary. However, it is assumed that the bodybuilder itself will recognise the necessity for and take such measures.
To improve stability and operational safety, rear tippers are sometimes required to be fitted with a so-called scissors-action support (see Fig. 29-IV – Pos. 1) and/or a support at the end of the frame (see Fig. 29-IV – Pos. 2).

 

Fig. 29-IV:    Rear tipper with scissors-action support

 

 

Vehicles in emission class Euro 6 must be fitted with spacers on the vehicle side of the exhaust silencer.
Otherwise the components will contact the exhaust silencer when then the drop-side panels open.

Bodybuilders must provide supports for bodies capable of tipping in order to protect workers in the event of repairs having to be carried out beneath the tipped body.

 

 

3.8    Set-down and roll-off skip loadersr

 

Chassis and equipment
MAN retaining brackets are designed for fastening loading platforms and box bodies. For this reason, they are not suitable for fastening set-down and roll-off skip loaders.

 

To improve stability on vehicles with air suspension it must be ensured that the air suspension is lowered before commencing the tipping operation. Lowering can either be done manually via the ECAS control unit or it can be automatic using special equipment Sales Code 311PH (input of the ECAS parameters for air suspension lowering to 20 mm above the buffers).
Special equipment 311PH automatically lowers the vehicle to the defined level above the buffers if the power take-off is engaged when the vehicle is at a standstill. To ensure that the function provided by Sales Code 311PH is properly activated it is imperative that the correct order of operations is observed when engaging the power take-off (see operating instructions). A check must also be carried out to ensure that the message “No ride height” appears on the display and that the vehicle has actually lowered.
If an automatic lowering system is not fitted then the user/driver must be informed of the requirement to manually lower the air suspension.

 

Requirements to be met by the body
The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

For these types of body, the design often means that the auxiliary frames cannot follow the contour of the main frame and special connections to the main frame must therefore be provided. Information regarding proven fasteners together with their design and fitting is available in the manufacturers’ installation instructions on bodies.

 

Because of the low substructure heights, the freedom of movement of all moving parts attached to the chassis (e.g. brake cylinders, transmission shift components, axle location components, etc.) and the body (e.g. hydraulic cylinders, pipes, tipper frame, etc.) must be checked and ensured. If necessary a reinforcing frame must be fitted. Additional measures may include limiting the suspension travel and restricting the pendulum movement of the tandem axle. These must be approved by MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

When loading and unloading, outriggers are required at the end of the vehicle if:

 

•    The rear-axle load is more than twice the technically permissible rear-axle load. Here, the tyre and rim load capacity must also be taken into account.
•    The front axle loses contact with the ground. For safety reasons, lifting of this kind is strictly forbidden!
•    The stability of the vehicle is not ensured. This can result from a high center of gravity, an impermissible side tilt when suspension compression occurs

     on one side, if the vehicle sinks into soft ground on one side, etc.

 

 

3.9    Loading crane

 

Loading cranes on truck chassis are usually fitted behind the cab or at the rear end of the vehicle. In addition, truck chassis are also employed as carrier vehicles for jib cranes. Crane bodies place great demands on truck chassis and thus necessitate meticulous coordination of body and chassis.

 

Approval of body

Approval for a crane body will be required if the framework set by these body guidelines is exceeded.

 

This applies to:

 

•    Body specifications do not permit compliance with the requirements of body and auxiliary-frame design (see Chapter IV, Sections 2.0 and 3.9.3).
•    The given maximum total crane moment as per Fig. 33-IV is exceeded
•    four outriggers,
•    Special outriggers are fitted.

 

Acceptance of cranes
A crane body and its working are to be examined before the crane first goes into use in line with national specifications by a crane specialist or another person authorized to examine crane structures.

 

Responsibility for ensuring stability lies with the bodybuilder.

 

 

3.9.1    Chassis and equipment

 

Crane bodies on chassis/semitrailer tractors with frame-profile no. 34 (see Chapter III, Section 4.3) are not permitted (model code nos.: 08S, 49S, 49W).

 

Reinforced axle equipment
Depending on the size of the crane (weight and center of gravity position) and location (behind the cab or at the rear), vehicles must be fitted with reinforced springs, reinforced anti-roll bars or reinforced shock absorbers, if these items are available. These measures will prevent the chassis from adopting a lopsided position (e.g. due to reduced compression of the reinforced springs) and will reduce any tendency to roll.
Nevertheless, it is not always possible to avoid some lopsidedness on a crane body because of the shift in a vehicle’s centre of gravity.

 

The body retaining brackets delivered ex works are not suitable for crane bodies.

 

Supporting vehicles
Chapter IV, Section 1.6 must in addition be observed with regard to vehicles with outriggers.

 

 

3.9.2    Requirements to be met by the body

 

General
The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

The empty weight and total moment of a loading crane must be matched to the chassis on which it will be fitted.

 

Axle loads
The maximum permissible axle load during crane operation (with the vehicle stationary) must not be more than twice the technically permissible axle load. The impact coefficient provided by the crane manufacturer must be factored in.

 

The pivoting range of the crane must be limited if this is required to maintain the permissible axle loads or to ensure stability.

 

Asymmetric installation of a crane is not permissible if uneven wheel loads arise as a result (see Chapter III, Section 2.2.6). The bodybuilder must ensure adequate compensation.

 

Support and stability
Amongst other characteristics, the torsional stiffness of the entire frame connection is responsible for stability.
Note here that high torsional stiffness of the frame structure reduces the driving comfort and offroad capability of the vehicle.

 

The number of outriggers and their positions and distance apart is to be determined by the crane manufacturer on the basis of the stability calculation and vehicle load. For technical reasons MAN may require four outriggers.
During operation of the crane the outriggers must always be extended level with the ground. They must be repositioned appropriately for loading and unloading. The crane producer must also detail any ballast required to ensure stability.

 

Particularities concerning detachable rear loading cranes
With the crane coupled while working without a trailer, the coupling device must be fitted with underride protection and the statutorily required lighting equipment.

 

A second trailer coupling is to be installed on the retaining brackets for detachable rear loading cranes if the vehicle is to be operated with a trailer. This trailer coupling is connected to the one fitted on the vehicle by means of a towing eye (Fig. 30-IV). The instructions in the “Coupling devices TG” booklet are to be observed.
The coupling device and the body must be able to properly absorb the forces created when working with a trailer.

 

In trailer operation, the overall length is increased by the distance between the two trailer couplings (dimension L, see Fig. 30-IV).

 

Fig. 30-IV:    Coupling device for rear loading crane 

 

 

The extra overhang length caused by the coupling device must be considered.

 

The centre of gravity of the payload shifts depending on whether a crane is coupled or not. To achieve the largest possible payload without exceeding permissible axle loads, we recommend clearly marking the centre of gravity of the payload, with and without a crane, on the body.

 

 

 

 

3.9.3    Requirements to be met by auxiliary frames for loading cranes

 

General

The bodymaker or crane producer must ensure adequate attachment of crane and subframe.
Operating forces including their safety coefficients must be properly absorbed.

 

All loading crane bodies require an auxiliary frame. Even in the case of crane total moments that theoretically produce a required geometrical moment of inertia of below 175 cm4, an auxiliary frame with a geometrical moment of inertia of at least 175 cm4 must be fitted.

 

Crane total moment

Calculation is based on the maximum total moment and not the lifting moment. The total moment results from the empty weight and the lifting force of the loading crane with the crane arm extended. Calculation of the total crane moment, see Formula 02-IV below.

 

Fig. 31-IV:    Moments on loading crane

 

 

Formula 02-IV:    Total moment of loading crane

 

                    g • s • (GKr • a + GH • b)

   MKr    =   -------------------------------

                            1000

 

Where:

 

   a    =    distance of crane center of gravity from center of crane pillar [m], crane arm extended to maximum length

   b    =    distance of maximum lifting load from center of crane pillar [m], crane arm extended to maximum length

   GH =    lifting load of the loading crane in [kg]

   GKr =    weight of the loading crane in [kg]

   MKr =    total moment in [kNm]

   s    =    impact coefficient acc. to crane producer (dependent on crane control), always ≥ 1

   g    =    acceleration due to gravity 9,81[m/s²]

 

Design of auxiliary frame

When installing a loading crane behind the cab the auxiliary frame must be enclosed to form a box, at least in the area surrounding the crane.

 

If the loading crane is installed at the rear, a closed profile must be used from the end of the frame to at least a point forward of the front-most rear axle guide member.


In addition, to increase the torsional stiffness of the auxiliary frame, a cross-strut (X-shaped connecting piece, see Fig. 32-IV) or an equivalent structure must be fitted. To be recognised by MAN as an “equivalent structure”, it is a prerequisite that MAN (for address see “Publisher” above) has issued an approval.

 

Fig. 32-IV:    Cross-shaped strut in subframe

 

 

Loading cranes are frequently installed with various types of body, for which an auxiliary frame is also required
(e.g. on tippers). In such cases, the auxiliary frame is usually divided into several auxiliary-frame regions. Variations in rigidity in the transitions from one region to another are to be avoided. If a continuous auxiliary-frame profile is to be used, the auxiliary frame with the greater strength and rigidity must be used for the entire body structure.

 

To ensure stability while a crane is operating the subframe in the region between the two outrigger members must exhibit adequate torsional stiffness. For strength reasons, lifting the vehicle on the outriggers is permissible only if the auxiliary-frame structure absorbs all the forces resulting from the operation of the crane and provided its connection to the chassis frame is not rigid (e.g. truck cranes).

 

To protect the auxiliary frame we recommend fitting an additional upper flange (anti-wear plate) to prevent the base of the crane from wearing into the auxiliary frame. This additional top flange should be 8-10 mm thick depending on the size of the crane.

 

Simplified auxiliary-frame design
The method and correlation between crane total moment and geometrical moment of inertia - dependent on the chassis frame - applies to crane structures behind the cab and to crane structures on the frame end with two outriggers. Safety coefficients have already been taken into account. The crane total moment MKr imust be factored in along with the impact coefficient supplied by the crane manufacturer (see Formula 02-IV).
The freedom of movement of all moving parts is not taken into consideration here; it must therefore be re-checked when the dimensions have been selected.

 

A diagram of total crane moment and geometrical moment of inertia for the frame profiles of TGS/TGX models is shown below (Fig. 33-IV).

 

Example of how to use the graphs in Fig. 33-IV:
an auxiliary frame is to be specified for a TGS 18.xxx 4x2 BB, model 03S vehicle, frame-profile no. 31(see Chapter III; Section 4.3). The vehicle is to be fitted with a crane with a total moment of 160 kNm.

 

Solution: A minimum geometrical moment of inertia of approx. 1.250 cm4 is derived from Fig. 33-IV.
If one U-profile with a width of 80 mm and a thickness of 8 mm is closed to form a box with an 8-mm thick profile, a profile height of at least 170 mm is required, see diagram in Fig. 35-IV.


If two U-profiles of width/thickness = 80/8 are nested to form a box, the minimum height is reduced to approx. 140 mm, see Fig. 36-IV.

If, when the values are read off, the profile size in question is not available, round up to the next available size. Rounding down is not permitted.

An open U-profile as in Fig. 34-IV must not be used in the vicinity of the crane.
It is only shown here because the diagram can also be used for other bodies.

 

Fig. 33-IV:    Total crane moment and geometrical moment of inertia for TGS/TGX

 

 

Fig. 34-IV:    Planar moment of inertia of U-profiles

 

 

Fig. 35-IV:    Geometrical moments of inertia of closed U-profiles

 

 

Fig. 36-IV:    Geometrical moments of inertia of nested U-profiles

 

 

 

 

 

3.10    Transport mixers

 

 

3.10.1    Chassis and equipment

 

The MAN range includes chassis that are suitable for mounting a transport mixer body.
These chassis can be recognised by the suffix “TM” for “Transport Mixer” in the sales documentation.

 

The requirements with regard to running gear and the thrust plates are then included in the scope of delivery.
In order to reduce the tendency to roll, transport mixer chassis must be fitted with stabilisers on both rear axles and must be equipped with springs that are specifically tuned for the application.

 

Table 06-IV:    Transport mixer chassis available ex works

 

Type number

Variant designation

26S

TGS 26.xxx 6X4 BB

26W

TGS TGS 33.xxx 6X4 BB-WW

49S

TGS 32.xxx 8X4 BB

37S

TGS 35.xxx 8X4 BB

39S

TGS 35.xxx 8X4 BB, TGS 41.xxx 8X4 BB

39W

TGS 41.xxx 8X4 BB-WW

79W

TGS 41.xxx 8X4 BB-WW-CKD

 

The concrete mixer is generally driven by the flywheel-side power take-off (SSNA) on the engine.
Further information on power take-offs can be found in the separate booklet entitled “Power take-offs”.

 

 

3.10.2    Requirements to be met by the body

 

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

Fig. 37-IV shows an example of thrust-plate arrangement on a transport mixer chassis. The body is rigid along
virtually its entire length, the only exception atng the front end of the auxiliary frame ahead of the drum mounting. The first two thrust plates must be positioned in the area of the front retaining brackets for the drum.
For more detailed explanations on auxiliary frame fastenings, see Chapter IV, Section 2.4 “Auxiliary frame and body fastenings”. The strength of the thrust plate should be 8 mm and at least match the material quality of
S355J2G3 (St52-3).

 

Fig. 37-IV:    Transport mixer body

 

 

If a different chassis (e.g. a tipper chassis) is to be used for fitting a transport mixer it is assumed that the spring and stabiliser equipment of the axles and the arrangement of the thrust plates are equivalent to those of a comparable transport mixer body.

 

The thrust plate arrangement of tipper chassis and the retaining brackets for loading platforms are not suitable for mounting transport mixer bodies.

 

Concrete conveyor belts and concrete pumps cannot easily be fitted together with mixer bodies onto standard transport mixer chassis. In some circumstances, a different auxiliary frame structure from that of the normal mixer auxiliary frame or a cross connection on the frame end is required (similar to rear loading crane bodies, see Chapter IV, Section 3.9.3, sub-section “Auxiliary frame for loading cranes”).
Approval from MAN (for address see “Publisher” above) and from the transport mixer manufacturer is essential.

 

 

3.11    Cable winch

 

Requirements to be met by the body

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

The following must be considered when installing a cable winch:

 

•    Tractive force
•    Installation position:
   -    Front installation
   -    Central installation
   -    Rear installation
   -    Side installation
•    Type drive:
   -    Mechanical
   -    Hydraulic
   -    Electrical
   -    Electromechanical
   -    Electrohydraulic.

 

Vehicle components such as axles, springs, frames, etc. must under no circumstances be overloaded by the operation of the cable winch. This is particularly important if the direction of the winch pulling force differs from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Automatic limiting of the pulling force may be necessary as a function of the direction of the pulling force.

 

In every case it is important to ensure clear and proper guidance and running of the cable. The cable should feed through as few guide pulleys as possible. At the same time no part of the vehicle may be degraded in its working.

 

When a winch is installed at the front, its maximum tractive force is limited by the technically permissible front-axle load. The technically permissible front-axle load is found on the factory plate of the vehicle and in the vehicle documentation. A winch design that has tractive forces above the technically permissible front-axle load is
permissible only after prior consultation with MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

A hydraulic winch drive is preferable because of the better possibilities for control and installation.
The efficiency of the hydraulic pump and motor is to be taken into account (see also Chapter V “Calculations”).

 

Examine whether existing hydraulic pumps, e.g. of a loading crane or tipper, can be shared. This can sometimes avoid the need for installing several power take-offs. The hydraulic circuit of HydroDrive vehicles is a closed circuit. It may not be used to drive a cable winch.

 

For the worm gears of mechanical winches it is necessary to observe the permissible input speed (usually < 2,000 rpm). Select the ratio of the power take-off accordingly. Take the low efficiency of the worm gear into consideration when calculating the minimum torque at the power take-off.

 

Refer to Chapter III, Section 8.0 “Electrical and electronic systems” with regard to electrically, electromechanically or electrohydraulically driven winches. The capacities of the alternator and battery must be taken into consideration.

 

Every time a winch is installed, the installation instructions of the winch manufacturer together with any applicable official safety regulations must be observed.

 

 

3.12    Single-pivot body

 

Requirements to be met by the body
The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

The single-pivot body, comparable to a fifth-wheel coupling, always requires a subframe.

 

Positioning of the pivot point for the single-pivot body behind the theoretical rear-axle centerline must be approved with regard to axle load distribution and handling. In this case approval must be granted by MAN (for address see “Publisher” above).

 

 

3.13    Vehicle transporter

 

 

3.13.1    Chassis and equipment

 

Vehicle-transporter bodies are usually fitted to semitrailer-tractor or truck chassis.

 

Base vehicle: truck chassis

This body variant is characterised by the following criteria.

 

•    Base vehicle is a truck chassis.
•    The body section is fitted onto the chassis and is not removable or detachable.

 

The trailer is usually fastened to the truck chassis by means of a low coupling system (see Fig. 38-IV).

Truck-type chassis always require a stabiliser and two level-adjustment systems.

 

Fig. 38-IV:    Vehicle transporter on truck chassis

 

 

Base vehicle: semitrailer tractor

This is a classic train in which the semitrailer rests on the tractor’s fifth-wheel coupling (see Fig. 39-IV). Chapter 5.3.1 must be observed with regard to this body variant.

 

Fig. 39-IV:    Vehicle transporter on semitrailer tractor

 

 

Base vehicle: semitrailer tractor or truck chassis

A semitrailer tractor as well as a truck chassis can be used as the base vehicle for this variant. The body is divided into two sections. The section that rests on the chassis is usually attached to the chassis at two or three mounting points (see Fig. 40-IV – Pos. 1). The second section of the body is attached to the first by means of a coupling system. When the vehicle is cornering, this coupling point enables rotation between the two sections of the body. Both sections of the body can be detached from the chassis (see Fig. 40-IV).

 

Fig. 40-IV:    Vehicle transporter on truck chassis

 

 

If a semitrailer tractor is used as the base vehicle, the following conditions must be fulfilled.

 

•    Wheel configuration 4x2
•    Maximum wheelbase 3900 mm
•    It is imperative that a stabiliser is fitted to the front axle.
•    The vehicle type entered in the official papers must be “Vehicle for interchangeable operation” or “

     Optional use as tractor unit and truck for car transport”, otherwise supplementary modifications to the chassis are necessary.
•    The tractor final cross member with hole pattern for trailer coupling must be fitted (no. 81.41250.0141).
     Because of its greater material thickness (9.5 mm) only this final cross member is suitable for supporting the forces exerted by the rear body connection.

      The tractor final cross member with a material thickness of 5 mm must not be used.
•    Use of the rear-axle guide with four-point control arm (second generation cast version - only for TGS/TGX) without supplementary stabiliser is possible.
•    The use of semitrailer tractors with only a single level-adjustment system on the rear axle is possible.
•    We strongly recommend fitting ESP for vehicle transporters. This equipment can be obtained under Sales Code 307DT.


Semitrailer tractors available ex works for operation as tanker/silo vehicles (model number: 08S (TGS 18.xxx BLS-TS)) or as low semitrailer tractors (model number: 13S/13X (TGS/TGX 18.xxx LLS-U)) are not suitable and therefore not approved for this type of operation.

 

If the chassis is to be converted to a truck in its so-called “second life” (after use as a vehicle transporter) supplementary conversion measures are necessary.

 

If subsequent modifications to the chassis are necessary, for example changes to the cab or the wheel configuration, Chapter III must be observed.

 

 

3.13.2    Requirements to be met by the body

 

The general requirements to be met by body design as set down in Chapter IV, Section 2.0 are to be observed.

 

 

 

 

 

V.    Calculations

 

 

 

1.0    General

 

Unless stated otherwise, dimensions are in millimetres (mm) and weights in kilograms (kg). “Weight” or “load” means the mass of a vehicle or parts of a vehicle in a stationary (steady) state.

 

Further general explanations can be found at www.manted.de in the “Documentation/help” section. Registration is required.

 

 

1.1    Speed

 

The following generally applies for the calculation of the road speed on the basis of engine speed, tyre size and overall ratio:

 

Formula 01-V:    Speed

 

               0,06 • nMot • U

   v    =   --------------------

                   iG • iv • iA

 

To determine theoretical top speed (or design top speed), the calculation uses an engine speed increased by 4% (constant factor of 0.0624).

 

The formula is therefore as follows:

 

Formula 02-V:    Theoretical top speed

 

                0,0624 • nMot • U

   v    =   ------------------------

                     iG • iv • iA

 

Where:

 

   v              Road speed [km/h]

   nMot         Engine speed [rpm]

   U             Tyre rolling circumference [m]

    iG            Gearbox ratio

    iv            Transfer-case ratio

    iA            Ratio of drive axle(s)

   0,06        Constant conversion factor m/min in km/h

   0,0624    Constant conversion factor with 4% increase of engine speed m/min in km/h

 

Note:

On vehicles with a speed limiter in accordance with 92/24/EEC, the design top speed is generally 90 km/h.

 

Important:

This calculation serves only to determine the theoretical top speed reached as a result of engine speeds and transmission ratios. The formula does not take into account that the actual top speed will be lower when driving resistances act on the driving forces. An estimate of the actual achievable speeds using a driving performance calculation in which air, rolling and climbing resistance on the one side and propulsive force on the other offset each other, can be found in Section 1.8, “Driving resistances”.

 

Example: Calculation of speeds

 

Given:

Tyre size: 315/80R 22.5
Rolling circumference: 3.280 m
Gearbox: ZF 16S2522TO
Transmission ratio in lowest gear: 13.80
Transmission ratio in highest gear: 0.84
Minimum engine speed at maximum engine torque: 1000 rpm
Maximum engine speed: 1900 rpm
Transfer case ratio G 172 on-road: 1.007
Transfer case ratio G 172 off-road: 1.652
Axle ratio: 4,00

 

Wanted:

1. Minimum speed off-road at maximum torque

2. Theoretical top speed without speed limiter

 

Answer 1:

               0,06 • 1000 • 3,280

   v    =   --------------------------

                13,8 • 1,652 • 4,00

   v    =    2,16 km/h

 

Answer 2:

               0,0624 • 1900 • 3,280

   v    =   ----------------------------

                  0,84 • 1,007 • 4,00

   v    =    115 km/h

 

115 km/h theoretically possible but restricted to 90 km/h by speed limiter (electronic speed limiter 89 km/h + 1 km/h tolerance).

 

 

1.2    Efficiency

 

Efficiency is the ratio of the power output to the power input.

 

The power output is always smaller than the power input, so the efficiency η is always < 1 or < 100 %.

 

Formula 03-V:    Degree of efficiency

 

                Pab

   η    =   --------

                Pzu

 

Where:

 

   Pzu    Power input [kW]

   Pab    Power output [kW]

   η      Efficiency

 

Note:

The individual efficiencies multiply when several subassemblies are connected in series.

 

Example: Single efficiency

 

Given:

Efficiency of a hydraulic pump       η    =    0,7

Required power                             Pab = 20 kW

 

Wanted:

How high is the input power   Pzu?

 

Solution:

                    Pab

   Pzu    =   ---------

                    η

 

                   20

   Pzu    =   --------

                  0,7

 

   Pzu    =    28,6 kW

 

Example: Several efficiencies

 

Given:

A pump drives a hydraulic motor via a jointed shaft system with two joints.

Output power Pab is 20 kW.

 

Single efficiencies

 

   Hydraulic pump:                  η1    =    0,7

   Jointed shaft joint a:            η2    =    0,95

   Gelenkwelle Gelenk b:        η3    =    0,95

   Jointed shaft joint b:            η4    =    0,8

 

Wanted:

How high is the input power Pzu?

 

Solution:

Total efficiency:

   ηges    =    η1 • η2 • η3 • η4

   ηges    =    0,7 • 0,95 • 0,95 • 0,8

   ηges    =    0,51

 

Input power:

                  20

   Pzu    =   -------

                 0,51

   Pzu    =    39,2 kW

 

 

1.3    Tractive force

 

The tractive force is dependent on:

 

•    engine torque

•    Overall ratio (including wheels)

•    Efficiency of power transmission

 

Formula 04-V:    Tractive force

 

                   2 • π • MMot • η • iG • iV • iA

   Fz    =    --------------------------------------

                                  U

 

Where:

 

   FZ        Tractive force [N]

   MMot    Tractive force [Nm]

   η         Total efficiency in driveline (for guideline values, see Table 02_V, Chapter V, Section 1.4.3)

   iG        Gearbox ratio

   iV        Transfer-case ratio

   iA        Ratio of drive axle(s)

   U        Tyre rolling circumference [m]

 

For an example of tractive force, see Chapter IV; Section 1.4.3 “Calculating gradeability”.

 

 

1.4    Gradeability

 

 

1.4.1    Distance travelled on uphill or downhill gradients

 

The gradeability of a vehicle is expressed in %. For example, the figure 25% means that for a horizontal length of I = 100 m, a height of h = 25 m can be overcome. The same applies correspondingly to downhill gradients.

 

The actual distance travelled c is calculated as follows:

 

Formula 05-V:    Distance travelled on uphill or downhill gradient

 

   

 

Where:

 

   c    Distance [m]

   l     Horizontal length of uphill or downhill gradient [m]

   h    Vertical height of uphill or downhill gradient [m]

   p    Uphill/downhill gradient

 

Example:

 

Given:

Gradient p    =    25 %.

 

Wanted:

What is the distance travelled for a length of 200 m?

 

Solution:

 

   

 

 

1.4.2    Angle of uphill or downhill gradient

 

The angle of uphill or downhill gradient α is calculated by the following formula:

 

Formula 06-V:    Angle of uphill or downhill gradient

 

                        p                                   p                           h                                 h

   tan α    =   ------- , α    =    arctan   ------- , sin α    =   ------ , α    =    arcsin   ------

                     100                                100                         c                                 c

 

Where:

 

    α    Angle of uphill gradient [°]

   p    Uphill/downhill gradient [%]

   h    Vertical height of uphill or downhill gradient [m]

   c    Distance [m]

 

Example: Calculating the angle of uphill gradient

 

Given:

Gradient p is 25%.

 

Wanted:

What is the angle of the gradient?

 

Solution:

                        p                 25

   tan α    =   -------    =    --------

                     100               100

         α    =    arctan 0,25

         α    =    14°

 

Fig. 01-V:    Gradient ratio, gradient, angle of gradient

 

 

 

1.4.3    Calculating the gradeability

 

Gradeability is dependent on:

 

•    Tractive force (see Formula 04-V, Chapter V, Section 1.3)

•    Total combined mass including total mass of trailer or semi-trailer

•    Rolling resistance

•    Adhesion (friction)

 

Gradeability (without taking adhesion between the tyres and the road surface into account) is calculated by the following formula:

 

Formula 07-V:    Gradeability without taking adhesion between the tyres and the road surface into account

 

                                   FZ

   p    =    100 • [   -------------    - fR   ]

                              9,81 • GZ

 

Where:

 

   p       Gradeability [%]

   FZ     Tractive force in [N]

   GZ    Overall combined mass, in [kg]

   fR    Coeffi cient of rolling resistance, see Table 01-V

 

Formula 07-V calculates the vehicle’s gradeability based on its characteristics of

 

•    Engine torque

•    Transmission, transfer case, axle drive and tyre ratio

•    Total combined mass

 

All that is taken into account here is the ability of the vehicle, based on the above-mentioned characteristics, to deal with a certain gradient. This does not consider the actual adhesion between wheels and road which in poor conditions (e.g. wet roads) can reduce traction so that hill-climbing performance is far below the value calculated here.

 

Calculation of the actual conditions based on given adhesion is addressed in the formula below.

 

Formula 08-V:    Gradeability in relation to road/tyre adhesion

 

                                µ • Gan

   pR    =    100 •  [  ------------    - fR   ]

                                   GZ

 

Where:

 

   pR      Gradeability allowing for friction [%]

   µ       Coefficient of adhesion between tyres/road surface, see Table 03-V

   fR      Coefficient of rolling resistance, see Table 01-V

   Gan    Sum of the axle loads of the drive axles as mass [kg]

   GZ    Gross train mass[kg]

 

Important:

The above formulae can be applied for resulting gradeability values of up to 30%. Results with values of more than 30% cannot be considered realistic.

 

Table 01-V:    Coefficients of rolling resistance fR

 

Road surface

Coefficient fR

Good asphalt

0,007

Wet asphalt

0,015

Good concrete

0,008

Rough concrete

0,011

Block paving

0,017

Poor road

0,032

Dirt track

0,15...0,94

Loose sand

0,15...0,30


Table 02-V:    Total efficiency in driveline η

 

Number of driven axles

η

One driven axle

0,95

Two driven axles

0,9

Three driven axles

0,85

Four driven axles

0,8

 

Table 03-V:    Coefficient of adhesion µ between tyres/road surface (guideline values)

 

Road surface

dry

wet

Concrete, granite paving

0,7

0,6

Tarmacadam

0,6

0,5

Asphalt

0,6

0,5

Blue basalt stone

0,55

0,3

Snow (compacted)

0,2

0,1

Sheet ice

0,1

0,01 … 0,1

 

Example: Calculation of gradeability not taking into account adhesion between tyres/road surface

 

Given:

Vehicle                                                                 TGS 33.430 6x6 BB

Maximum engine torque                                     MMot      =    2100 Nm

Efficiency with three driven axles                      ηges       =    0,85

Transmission ratio in lowest gear                         iG          =    13,80

Transfer-case ratio in on-road gear                     iV           =    1,007

Transfer-case ratio in off-road gear                     i       =    1,652

Drive-axle ratio                                                     iA            =    4,00

Tyres 315/80 R 22.5 with rolling circumference   U        =    3,280 m

Gross train weight                                               GZ          =    100000 kg

Coefficient of rolling resistance                           f

   -    smooth asphalt                                                       =    0,007

   -    poor, rough road                                                     =    0,032

 

Wanted:

Maximum gradeability p in on-road and off-road gear.

 

Solution:

1. Maximum tractive force (for definition see Formula 04-V, Chapter V, Section 1.3) in on-road gear:

 

                 2π • MMot • η • iG • iV • iA

   FZ    =   ---------------------------------

                                U

                2π • 2100 • 0,85 • 13,8 • 1,007 • 4,00

   FZ     =   -----------------------------------------------

                                       3,280

   FZ    =    190070 N = 190,07 kN

 

2. Maximum tractive force (for definition see Formula 04-V, Chapter V, Section 1.3) in off-road gear:

 

                   2π • MMot • η • iG • iV • iA

   F    =   ----------------------------------

                                    U

                 2π • 2100 • 0,85 • 13,8 • 1,007 • 4,00

   FZ      =   -----------------------------------------------

                                      3,280

   F    =    311812 N = 311,8 kN

 

3. Maximum gradeability in on-road gear on good asphalt road:

 

                                 F

   p    =    100 •  [  -----------    - fR  ]

                            9,81 • GZ

 

                                 190070

   p    =    100 •  [  -------------------    - 0,007  ]

                              9,81 • 100000

   p    =    18,68 %

 

4. Maximum gradeability in on-road gear on poor, rutted road:

                                   190070

   p    =    100 •  [  ------------------    - 0,032  ]

                              9,81 • 100000

   p    =    16,18 %

 

5. Maximum gradeability in off-road gear on good asphalt road:

 

                                   311812

   p    =    100 •  [  -------------------    - 0,007  ]

                              9,81 • 100000

   p    =    31,09 %

 

6. Maximum gradeability in off-road gear on poor, rutted road:

 

                                   311812

   p    =    100 •  [  -------------------    - 0,032  ]

                              9,81 • 100000

   p    =    28,58 %

 

Please note that:

The examples do not consider whether adhesion between road and driven wheels (friction) will allow transmission of the tractive force required for climbing a gradient. The following example shows the calculation where adhesion between the tyres and the road surface is taken into consideration. Formula 08-V is applied.

 

Example: Calculation of gradeability taking into account adhesion between tyres/road surface.

 

Given:

Coefficient of friction on wet asphalt road                         µ    =    0,5

Coefficient of rolling resistance on wet asphalt road        fR   =    0,015

Total combined mass                                                          GZ   =    44000 kg

Sum of axle loads of all driven axles                                 Gan   =    33000 kg

 

Wanted:

Gradeability allowing for friction [%]

 

                               0,5 • 26000

   pR    =    100 •   [   ---------------    - 0,015  ]

                                 100000

 

Solution:

   pR    =    11,5%

 

 

1.5    Torque

 

Torque can be calculated using various different formulae, depending on the givens.

If force and effective distance are known:

 

Formula 09-V:    Torque with force and effective distance

 

   M    =    F • I

 

If power and rotational speed are known:

 

Formula 10-V:    Torque with power and rotational speed

 

                 9550 • P

   M    =   --------------

                    n • η

 

If in hydraulics delivery rate (volumetric flow), pressure and rotational speed are known:

 

Formula 11-V:    Torque with delivery rate, pressure and rotational speed

 

                 15,9 • Q • p

   M    =   ----------------

                      n • η

 

Where:

 

   M    Torque [Nm]

   F    Force [N]

   l     Effective distance of force from center of rotation [m]

   P    Power [kW]

   n    Rotational speed [rpm]

   η    Efficiency

   Q    Volumetric flow rate [l/minute]

   p    Pressure [bar]

 

Example: Force and effective distance are known

 

Given:

A cable winch with a pulling force F = 50000 N has a drum diameter d = 0.3 m.

 

Wanted:

Without taking efficiency into account, what is the torque?

 

Solution:

   M    =    F • l    =    F • 0,5d (the radius of the drum is the lever arm)

   M    =    50000 N • 0,5 • 0,3 m

   M    =    7500 Nm

 

Example: Power and rotational speed are known

 

Given:

A power take-off is to transmit a power P of 100 kW at n = 1,500 rpm.

 

Wanted:

What torque must the power take-off be able to transmit without considering efficiency?

 

Solution:

                  9550 • 100

   M    =   -----------------

                      1500

   M    =    637 Nm

 

Example: Delivery rate (volumetric flow rate), pressure and rotational speed are known for a hydraulic pump

 

Given:

A hydraulic pump delivers a volumetric flow rate of Q = 80 l/minute at a pressure p = 170 bar and a pump rotational speed n = 1,000 rpm.

 

Wanted:

Without taking efficiency into account, what torque is necessary?

 

Solution:

                15,9 • 80 • 170

   M    =   -------------------

                        1000

   M    =    216 Nm

 

If efficiency is to be taken into account, the torques calculated in each case must be divided by the overall efficiency (see also Section 1.2, “Efficiency”).

 

 

 

1.6    Power output

 

Power can be calculated using various different formulae, depending on the givens.

 

For planar motion:

 

Formula 12-V:    Power for planar motion

 

                 F • v              9,81 • m • v

   P    =   -----------    =   ----------------

                1000                     1000

 

For rotating motion:

 

Formula 13-V:    Power for rotating motion

 

                M • n

   P    =   -----------

                9550 η

 

In hydraulics:

 

Formula 14-V:    Power in hydraulics

 

                  Q • p

   P    =   -------------

                 600 • η

 

Where:

 

   P    Power [kW]

   m    Mass [kg]

   v    Velocity [m/s]

   η    Efficiency

   F    Force [N]

   M    Torque [Nm]

   n    Rotational speed [rpm]

   Q    Delivery rate (volumetric flow rate) [l/minute]

   p    Pressure [bar]

 

   1000    Constant conversion factor of [W] to [kW]

   9550    Constant conversion factor of [Nm] and [rpm] to [kW]

     600    Constant conversion factor of [rpm] and [bar] to [kW]

 

Example: Lifting motion

 

Given:

Liftgate payload including own weight is m = 2600 kg

Lifting velocity v = 0,2 m/s

 

Wanted:

How high is the power without considering efficiency?

 

Solution:

               9,81 • 2600 • 0,2

   P    =   -----------------------

                        1000

   P    =    5,1 kW

 

Example: Planar motion

 

Given:

Cable winch                    F    =    100000 N

Cable velocity    v    =    0,15 m/s

 

Wanted:

How much power is needed without considering efficiency?

 

Solution:

                100000 • 0,15

   P    =   --------------------

                      1000

   P    =    15 kW

 

Example: Rotational movement

 

Given:

PTO rotational speed      n    =    1800 rpm

Permissible torque    M    =      600 Nm

 

Wanted:

How high is the power without considering efficiency?

 

Solution:

                  600 • 1800

   P    =   ------------------

                    9550

   P    =    113 kW

 

Example: Hydraulic system

 

Given:

Volumetric flow rate of pump Q = 60 l/min

Pressure p = 170 bar

 

Wanted:

How high is the power without considering efficiency?

 

Solution:

                 60 • 170

    P    =   -------------

                    600

   P    =    17 kW

 

 

1.7    Rotational speeds for power take-offs on the transfer case

 

If the PTO on the transfer case is operating and its operation is distance-dependent, its rotational speed nN is given in revolutions per metre of distance covered.

 

It is calculated from the following:

 

Formula 15-V:    Revolutions per meter, power take-off on transfer case

 

                   iA • iV

   nN    =   ----------

                     U

 

The distance s in metres covered per revolution of the PTO (reciprocal value of nN) is calculated by:

 

Formula 16-V:    Distance per revolution, power take-off on transfer case

 

                   U

   s    =   ---------

               iA • iV

 

Where:

 

   nN   Rotational speed of PTO [1/m]

   iA    Drive-axle ratio

   iV   Transfer-case ratio

   U    Rolling circumference of tyres [m]

   s    Distance covered [m]

 

Example:

 

Given:

315/80R22.5 tyres with rolling circumference   U    =    3,280 m

Drive axle ratio                                                   iA    =    5,33

Transfer-case G 172 ratio in on-road gear        iV    =    1,007

Off-road                                                              iV    =    1,652

 

Wanted:

The rotational speeds of the PTO in on-road and off-road gear and the associated distance per revolution.

 

Solution:

PTO rotational speed in on-road gear

                    5,33 • 1,007

    nN   =   ------------------

                        3,280

   nN   =    1,636 /m

 

This corresponds to a distance of

                   3,280

   s    =   ----------------

               5,33 • 1,007

   s    =    0,611 m

 

PTO rotational speed in off-road gear

                   5,33 • 1,652

    nN    =   ----------------

                      3,280

   nN    =    2,684 /m

 

This corresponds to a distance of

                      3,280

   s    =   ------------------

               5,33 • 1,652

   s    =    0,372 m

 

 

1.8    Driving resistances

 

The major driving resistances are:

 

•    Rolling resistance

•    Climbing resistance

•    Air resistance (drag)

 

A vehicle can only move if the sum of all resistances is overcome. Resistances are forces that either balance out the driving force (uniform movement) or are smaller than the driving force (accelerated movement).

 

Formula 17-V:    Rolling resistance force

 

   FR    =    9,81 • fR • Gz • cos α

 

Formula 18-V:    Climbing resistance force

 

   FS    =    9,81 • GZ • sin α

 

Angle of uphill gradient (for the formula, see Chapter V, Section 1.4.2)

                         p                                    p

   tan α    =   -------- , α    =    arctan   -------

                      100                                100

 

Formula 19-V:    Air resistance force

 

   FL    =    0,6 • cW • A • v2

 

Where:

 

   FR    Rolling resistance force [N]

   fR    Coefficient of rolling resistance, see Table 01-V

   GZ    Gross train mass [kg]

   α     Angle of uphill gradient [°]

   FS    Climbing resistance force [N]

   p     Uphill gradient [%]

   FL     Air resistance force [N]

   cW    Drag coefficient

   A    Vehicle frontal area [m²]

   v     Velocity [m/s]

 

Example:

 

Given:

Semi-trailer tractor                                                             GZ     40000 kg

Speed                                                                                v       80 km/h

Uphill gradient                                                                    p       3 %

Vehicle front                                                                      A       7 m2

Coefficient of rolling resistance for good asphalt road      fR     0,007

 

The difference is to be determined:

 

•    with spoiler,     cW1    =    0,6

•    without spoiler, cW2     =   1,0

 

Wanted:

The values: rolling resistance, climbing resistance, air resistance with/without spoiler and the power requirement in each case.

 

Solution:

Auxiliary calculation 1

Conversion of driving speed from km/h to m/s:

 

                80

   v    =   ------

               3,6

   v    =    22,22 m/s

 

Auxiliary calculation 2

Conversion of gradeability from percent to degrees:

 

                                 3

   α    =    arctan   --------    =    arctan 0,03

                              100

   α    =    1,72°

 

1. Calculation of rolling resistance:

 

   FR    =    9,81 • 0,007 • 40000 • cos 1,72°

   FR    =    2746 N

 

2. Calculation of climbing resistance:

 

   FS    =    9,81 • 40000 • sin 1,72°

   FS    =    11778 N

 

3. Calculation of air resistance FL1 with spoiler:

 

   FL1   =    0,6 • 0,6 • 7 • 22,222

   FL1    =    1244 N

 

4. Calculation of air resistance FL2 without spoiler:

 

   FL2    =    0,6 • 1 • 7 • 22,222

   FL2    =    2074 N

 

5. Total resistance Fges1 with spoiler:

 

   Fges1    =    FR + FS + FL1

   Fges1    =    2746 + 11778 + 1244

   Fges1    =    15768 N

 

6. Total resistance  Fges2 without spoiler:

 

   Fges2    =    FS + FS + FL2

   Fges2    =    2746 + 11778 + 2074

   Fges2    =    16598 N

 

7. Power requirement P1 with spoiler without considering efficiency:

 

(power after Formula 12-V: power for planar motion)

 

                   Fges1 • v

   P1    =   --------------

                   1000

                15768 • 22,22

   P1    =   -------------------

                    1000

   P1    =    350 kW (476 PS)

 

8. Power requirement P2 without spoiler without considering efficiency:

 

                        Fges2 • v

   P2    =   --------------------

                         1000

                 16598 • 22,22

   P2    =   -------------------

                     1000

   P2    =    369 kW (502 PS)

 

9. Power requirement P1 with spoiler with total driveline efficiency η = 0,95:

 

                  P1             350

   P1    =   -----    =   ---------

                 η              0,95

   P1    =    368 kW (501 PS)

 

10. Power requirement P2 without spoiler with total driveline efficiency η = 0,95:

 

                   P2              369

   P2    =   ------    =   ---------

                  η              0,95

   P2    =    388 kW (528 PS)

 

 

1.9    Turning circle

 

When a vehicle circles each wheel describes a turning circle. The outer turning circle, or its radius, is the main subject of interest.
The calculation is only an approximation because when a vehicle is cornering the perpendiculars through the centers of all wheels do not intersect at the curve center point (Ackermann condition). Moreover, when a vehicle is in motion dynamic forces influencing cornering arise but are not taken into account in the formulae.

 

Nevertheless, the following formulae can be used for estimating purposes:

 

Formula 20-V:    Distance between steering axes

 

   j    =    s - 2r0

 

Formula 21-V:    Theoretical outer steering angle

 

                                          j

   cotßao    =    cot ßi +   -----

                                        lkt

 

Formula 22-V:    Steering deviation

 

   ßF   =    ßa - ßao

 

Formula 23-V:    Turning circle radius

 

                   lkt

   rS    =   -----------    + r0 - 50 • ßF

               sin ßao

 

Where:

 

   j        Distance between steering axes [mm]

   s       Track width [mm]

   lkt      Wheelbase [mm]

   r0      Scrub radius [mm]

   βao    Outer steering angle [°]

   βi      Inner steering angle [°]

   βF    Steering deviation [°]

 

Fig. 02-V:    Steering deviation

 

 

Example:

 

Given:

Wheelbase                         lkt    3900 mm

Front axle                                 Typ VOK-09

Tyres                                        315/80 R 22.5

Rims                                          22.5 x 9.00

Track width                        s     2048 mm

Scrub radius                      r0      49 mm

Inner steering angle           ß     49,0°

Outer steering angle         ßao  32°45‘ = 32,75°

 

Wanted:

The distance between steering axes, the theoretical outer steering angle, the steering deviation and the radius of the turning circle.

 

Solution:

1. Distance between steering axes

 

   j    =    s - 2 • r0    =    2048 - 2 • 49

   j    =    1950

 

2. Theoretical outer steering angle

 

                                          j                                1950

   cotßao    =    cotßi +   ------    =    0,8693 +   --------

                                        lkt                               3900

   cotßao    =    1,369

   ßao       =     36,14°

 

3. Steering deviation

 

   ßF    =    ßa - ßao    =    32,75° - 36,14°    =    -3,39°

 

4. Turning circle radius

 

                   3900

   rS    =    -------------   + 49 - 50 • (-3,39°)

                 sin 36,14°

   rS    =    6831 mm

 

 

 

 

 

1.10    Axle-load calculation

 

An axle load calculation is essential for optimizing a vehicle and correctly designing a body.


A body can be matched properly to a vehicle only if the vehicle is weighed before any bodymaking commences. The weights obtained in the weighing process are to be included in the axle-load calculation.

 

The following sub-sections explain axle-load calculation.

 

 

1.10.1    Performing an axle-load calculation

 

The moment theorem is used to distribute the weight of the equipment to the front and rear axles. All distances are referred to the theoretical front axle centre. For ease of understanding, „weight“ is not used in the sense of weight force (in N) in the following formulae but in the sense of mass (in kg).

 

The following formulae are required in order to calculate axle load:

 

Formula 24-V:    Rear-axle weight difference

 

                    ∆G • a

   ∆GH    =   ----------

                       lt

 

Formula 25-V:    Front-axle weight difference

 

   ∆GV    =    ∆G • ∆GH

 

Where:

 

   ΔGH    Rear-axle weight difference [kg]

   ΔGV    Front-axle weight difference [kg]

   ΔG      Component weight difference [kg]

   a        Distance between theoretical front-axle centerline and component‘s center of gravity [mm]

   lt        Theoretical wheelbase [mm]

 

Note:

Rounding up or down to whole kilograms is quite sufficient in practice. Ensure the correct mathematical symbol.

 

For this reason, the following rule applies:

 

•    Dimensions:

   -    all distances/clearances that are IN FRONT OF the theoretical front-axle centerline have a MINUS sign (-)

   -    all distances that are BEHIND the theoretical front-axle centerline have a PLUS sign (+)

•    Weights:

   -    all weights that are ADDED TO the vehicle have a PLUS sign (+)

   -    all equipment weights that are REMOVED FROM the vehicle have a MINUS sign (-)

 

Example:

 

Given:

Instead of a tank weighing 140 kg, a tank weighing 400 kg is installed. The vehicle has a theoretical wheelbase of lt = 4,500 mm. The distance between the tank and the theoretical front-axle centerline is 1,600 mm (see Fig. 03-V).

 

Wanted:

A calculation of the weight distribution to the front and rear axle is required.

 

Solution:

Weight difference:

 

   ∆G    =    400 - 140    =    260 kg

 

Rear-axle weight difference

 

                    260 • 1600

   ∆GH    =   ---------------

                         4500

   ∆GH    =    92 kg

 

Front-axle weight difference

 

   ∆GV     =    260 - 92

   ∆GV     =   168 kg

 

Fig. 03-V:    Axle-load calculation: Tank layout

 

 

Example: Snowplough plate

 

Given:

Weight difference                              ∆G    =    120 kg

Distance from first axle centerline     a    =    -1600 mm

Theoretical wheelbase                        lt    =    4500 mm

 

Wanted:

A calculation of the weight distribution to the front and rear axle is required.

 

Solution:

Rear axle

 

                     ∆G • a             120 • (-1600)

   ∆GH    =   ----------    =   ------------------

                       lt                        4500

   ∆GH    =    -43 kg, the load on the rear axle is decreased.

 

Front axle

 

   ∆GV    =    ∆G - ∆GH    =    120 - (-43)

   ∆GV    =    163 kg, the load on the front axle is increased.

 

The following tables show a complete axle-load calculation. Two variants compared in order to illustrate the resulting difference in axle load (Variant 1 with loading crane arm folded, see Table 04-V; Variant 2 with loading crane arm extended, see Table 05-V).

 

Table 04-V:     Example of an axle-load calculation, Variant 1

 

A X L E - L O A D  C A L C U L A T I O N

MAN Truck & Bus AG, PO Box 500620, 80976 Munich

Name of variant:

TGL 8.220 4x2 BB

Calc. no.:

-

Wheelbase:

3600

Base vehicle no.:

LN03NC02

Wheelbase tech.:

3600

OE no.:

-

Overhang:

1,275

=standard

Chassis no.

-

Overhang:

=special

Veh. type:

TLC

Overhang tech.:

1,275

Cab:

C

Chassis drawing no.:

81.99126.

0186

Structure:

0

mm

Distance from tech.

Weight distribution on

Designation

FA centre

FA

RA

Total

 

 

 

 

 

Weight of vehicle in series status w. driver, tools

2620

865

3485

fuel, spare wheel, w/out trailer fittings

0

Trailer coupling

4,875

-12

47

35

Exhaust upswept left

480

30

5

35

Seat for driver, comfort

-300

16

-1

15

Fuel tank steel, 150 ltr. (standard 100 litres)

2,200

27

43

70

Ball-type coupling w. fitting

4,925

-4

14

10

Plastic mudguards RA

3,600

0

26

26

Air tank trailer operation (tipper)

2,905

4

16

20

Power take-off and pump

1500

9

6

15

Tyres RA 225/75 R 17.5
 (weight difference to standard equipment)

3,600

0

10

10

Tyres FA 225/75 R 17.5
 (weight difference to standard equipment)

0

5

0

5

Final cross member for trailer coupling

4,875

-11

41

30

Bench

-300

22

-2

20

Stabilizer RA

3,900

-3

33

30

Sonstiges

1,280

29

16

45

Oil tank

1,559

60

45

105

Loading crane positioned for transport (arm folded)

1,020

631

249

880

Reinforcement in crane region

1,100

31

14

45

Auxiliary frame and tipper body

3,250

90

840

930

 

 

 

 

 

Chassis - unladen weight

 

3545

2266

5811

Permissible loads

3700

5600

7490

Difference between unladen weight and permissible loads

155

3334

1679

Center of gravity for payload with ref. to tech. RA centerline, FA fully laden X1= 333

155

1524

1679

Center of gravity for payload with ref. to tech. RA centerline, RA fully laden X2= -3548

-1655

3334

1679

Center of gravity for payload with ref. to tech. RA centerline, implemented X3= 250

117

1562

1679

Axle overload

-39

-1771

Payload loss due to axle overload

0

With even loading there remains

117

1562

1679

Payload

0

0

Loading the vehicle  

3661

3829

7490

Axle or vehicle loading

99.0 %

68.4 %

100.0 %

Axle load distribution

48.9 %

51.1 %

100.0 %

Vehicle unladen  

3545

2266

5811

Axle or vehicle loading

95.8 %

40.5 %

77.6 %

Axle load distribution

61.0 %

39.0 %

100.0 %

Vehicle overhang 35.4 %
Observe weight tolerances of +/- 5% in accordance with DIN 70020! Errors and omissions excepted.

 

Table 05-V:     Example of an axle-load calculation, Variant 2

 

A X L E - L O A D  C A L C U L A T I O N